Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Effects Of Media Violence On Children - 974 Words

Nowadays, people have more ways to access many kinds of media, like Internet, video game, television and film. It is generally believed that some of the bad information such as violent content in the media can have a negative effect on people, and it can end up causing some social problem. It is clear that children are more likely to be influenced by media violence than other age groups because of their world outlook and personality are not formed. Furthermore is if media violence does have some profound influence on children, this will lead to more social problems in the next generation. If people do not want their children to be affected by media violence, each person should pay attention in how to solve this problem. The thesis will focus on discussing the effects on children caused by media violence, and social problems caused by these effects, then give solutions. Specifically, children are influenced by media violence because media are lack supervision, therefore It can be reso lved through Legislative limit and family regulation. The main reason for this problem is that children can be easily exposed to violence in the media. There is no doubt that if children can access to media violence by freely, there must be some deficiencies in the supervision and restriction aspects of these media. Cantoret(1998) suggest that there are more violence be added in the media because it can attract more audiences, then get more business interests (p. 89). On the other hand, inShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children873 Words   |  4 Pages According to the Media Education Foundation, once a child reaches eighteen years of age, they have witnessed around 200,000 acts of violence and 16,000 murders ( Our society loves entertainment and a grand portion of this entertainment contains violence. Children constantly consume violent visuals, due to their prevalence. Majority of our society is uninterested in the effects of media violence si nce its effects do not show immediately. Misinformation is our greatest enemy in theRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children884 Words   |  4 Pagesis all this necessary to fabricate in the media? What are characters in movies teaching kids? What about the language in music talking about killing people and talking about violence like it’s the cool thing? What about new channels always talking about guns, bombs and threats to the public, is this what is influencing are children because they view it as a norm? Some may agree with this as others may disagree. Media violence is not the factor in violence today. Studies show that over 90% of homesRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1357 Words   |  6 Pagesthe graphic cruelty and violence. According to American Psychological Association, the harmful influence of media violence on children dates back to the 1950s and 1960s, and remains strong today. A child that watches violence or hears about violence can be influenced to become violent. Indeed, in reviewing the totality of empirical evidence regarding the impact of media violence, the conclusion that exposure to violent portrayals poses a risk of harmful effects on children has been reached by theRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1943 Words   |  8 PagesFor many years now, the media has been a big part of our lives. Almost everybody in the world is or has connected to it one way or another. It is a way for families and friends to have fun together, for interesting topics that people are interested in, or to just enjoy alone. However, there is a problem that can be seen across all types of media: violence. Violence can be seen as a distraught way to get over problems. There is judgement issues involved for violence. It is done by bullies in schoolRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children2411 Words   |  10 PagesMedia Violence is definitely harmful to children as the exposure of media violence can desensitize children (age 6-12) to violence and in the real world; violence becomes enjoyable and does not result in apprehensiveness in the child. There have been several studies and experiments regarding the adverse effects of violence used in video games, television, as well as movies. With both preschool and school-aged children, studies have found that they are more likely to imitate the violence they seeRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children2122 Words   |  9 Pagesexposed to various types of media, for example books or magazines, television, song lyrics, video games, and movies. Media often portrays, aggressive action, behaviour, and violence. This content can negatively affect not only adolescents and adults, but can have an even greater effect on children even from the moment they are exposed to it. Children who are exposed to violence in the media may display aggressive and violent behaviour. Young people especially children under the age of eight thisRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1903 Words   |  8 Pagesdepict different forms of violence. Some people feel that there is too much violence exposed in the media. Many studies have made the claim that the media is responsible for much of the violence seen in the world we live in. However, people have choices and responsibilities we cannot allow ourselves to blame it on other things such as the media. The violence seen in our media has an impact on both adults and children. Since children are also exposed to various forms of media, there has been additionalRead MoreEffects of Media Violence on Children2430 Words   |  10 PagesThe Effect of Media Violence on Children and Levels of Aggression. It has been said that children are like sponges when it comes to attaining knowledge. This seems to be true whether they are learning to speak or how to show emotion. Feelings and emotions become more imminent once children begin to go through adolescents. Children acquire the ability to aggression, sadness, and happiness more readily. Males typically exhibit higher levels of aggression then females according to some researchRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1270 Words   |  6 Pagesdifferent forms of violence. Some people feel that there is too much violence exposed in the media. Many studies have made the claim that the media is responsible for much of the violence seen in the world we live in (List and Wolfgang). However, people have choices and responsibilities we cannot allow ourselves to blame it on other things such as the media. The violence seen in our media has an impact on both adults and children. Since children are also exposed to various forms of media, there has beenRead MoreWhat Is the Effect of Media Violence on Children1314 Words   |  6 PagesYasser Abdelaziz Ms. Williams English 1010-18 13, December 2010 The Effect of Media Violence on Children Although very little research was done on it in the past, media violence has sparked much controversy in recent history. As technology becomes more advanced, new methods of uncovering the media’s effects on children have emerged. Advances in Neuroscience, for example, can become tools to understanding the effects media violence has from a psychological standpoint. The brain in its underpinnings

Friday, December 13, 2019

The Amber Spyglass Chapter 36 The Broken Arrow Free Essays

The two daemons moved through the silent village, in and out of the shadows, padding cat-formed across the moonlit gathering-floor, pausing outside the open door of Mary’s house. Cautiously they looked inside and saw only the sleeping woman; so they withdrew and moved through the moonlight again, toward the shelter tree. Its long branches trailed their fragrant corkscrew leaves almost down to the ground. We will write a custom essay sample on The Amber Spyglass Chapter 36 The Broken Arrow or any similar topic only for you Order Now Very slowly, very careful not to rustle a leaf or snap a fallen twig, the two shapes slipped in through the leaf curtain and saw what they were seeking: the boy and the girl, fast asleep in each other’s arms. They moved closer over the grass and touched the sleepers softly with nose, paw, whiskers, bathing in the life-giving warmth they gave off, but being infinitely careful not to wake them. As they checked their people (gently cleaning Will’s fast-healing wound, lifting the lock of hair off Lyra’s face), there was a soft sound behind them. Instantly, in total silence, both daemons sprang around, becoming wolves: mad light eyes, bare white teeth, menace in every line. A woman stood there, outlined by the moon. It was not Mary, and when she spoke, they heard her clearly, though her voice made no sound. â€Å"Come with me,† she said. Pantalaimon’s daemon heart leapt within him, but he said nothing until he could greet her away from the sleepers under the tree. â€Å"Serafina Pekkala!† he said joyfully. â€Å"Where have you been? Do you know what’s happened?† â€Å"Hush. Let’s fly to a place where we can talk,† she said, mindful of the sleeping villagers. Her branch of cloud-pine lay by the door of Mary’s house, and as she took it up, the two daemons changed into birds – a nightingale, an owl – and flew with her over the thatched roofs, over the grasslands, over the ridge, and toward the nearest wheel tree grove, as huge as a castle, its crown looking like curds of silver in the moonlight. There Serafina Pekkala settled on the highest comfortable branch, among the open flowers drinking in the Dust, and the two birds perched nearby. â€Å"You won’t be birds for long,† she said. â€Å"Very soon now your shapes will settle. Look around and take this sight into your memory.† â€Å"What will we be?† said Pantalaimon. â€Å"You’ll find out sooner than you think. Listen,† said Serafina Pekkala, â€Å"and I’ll tell you some witch-lore that none but witches know. The reason I can do that is that you are here with me, and your humans are down there, sleeping. Who are the only people for whom that is possible?† â€Å"Witches,† said Pantalaimon, â€Å"and shamans. So†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"In leaving you both on the shores of the world of the dead, Lyra and Will did something, without knowing it, that witches have done since the first time there were witches. There’s a region of our north land, a desolate, abominable place, where a great catastrophe happened in the childhood of the world, and where nothing has lived since. No daemons can enter it. To become a witch, a girl must cross it alone and leave her daemon behind. You know the suffering they must undergo. But having done it, they find that their daemons were not severed, as in Bolvangar; they are still one whole being; but now they can roam free, and go to far places and see strange things and bring back knowledge. â€Å"And you are not severed, are you?† â€Å"No,† said Pantalaimon. â€Å"We are still one. But it was so painful, and we were so frightened†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Well,† said Serafina, â€Å"the two of them will not fly like witches, and they will not live as long as we do; but thanks to what they did, you and they are witch in all but that.† The two daemons considered the strangeness of this knowledge. â€Å"Does that mean we shall be birds, like witches’ daemons?† said Pantalaimon. â€Å"Be patient.† â€Å"And how can Will be a witch? I thought all witches were female.† â€Å"Those two have changed many things. We are all learning new ways, even witches. But one thing hasn’t changed: you must help your humans, not hinder them. You must help them and guide them and encourage them toward wisdom. That’s what daemons are for.† They were silent. Serafina turned to the nightingale and said, â€Å"What is your name?† â€Å"I have no name. I didn’t know I was born until I was torn away from his heart.† â€Å"Then I shall name you Kirjava.† â€Å"Kirjava,† said Pantalaimon, trying the sound. â€Å"What does it mean?† â€Å"Soon you will see what it means. But now,† Serafina went on, â€Å"you must listen carefully, because I’m going to tell you what you should do.† â€Å"No,† said Kirjava forcefully. Serafina said gently, â€Å"I can hear from your tone that you know what I’m going to say.† â€Å"We don’t want to hear it!† said Pantalaimon. â€Å"It’s too soon,† said the nightingale. â€Å"It’s much too soon.† Serafina was silent, because she agreed with them, and she felt sorrowful. She was the wisest one there, and she had to guide them to what was right; but she let their agitation subside before she went on. â€Å"Where did you go, in your wanderings?† she said. â€Å"Through many worlds,† said Pantalaimon. â€Å"Everywhere we found a window, we went through. There are more windows than we thought.† â€Å"And you saw – â€Å" â€Å"Yes,† said Kirjava, â€Å"we looked closely, and we saw what was happening.† â€Å"We saw many other things. We met an angel,† said Pantalaimon quickly. â€Å"And we saw the world where the little people come from, the Gallivespians. There are big people there, too, who try and kill them.† They told the witch more of what they’d seen, and they were trying to distract her, and she knew it; but she let them talk, because of the love each one had for the other’s voice. But eventually they ran out of things to tell her, and they fell silent. The only sound was the gentle, endless whisper of the leaves, until Serafina Pekkala said: â€Å"You have been keeping away from Will and Lyra to punish them. I know why you’re doing that; my Kaisa did just the same after I came through the desolate barrens. But he came to me eventually, because we loved each other still. And they will need you soon to help them do what has to be done next. Because you have to tell them what you know.† Pantalaimon cried aloud, a pure, cold owl cry, a sound never heard in that world before. In nests and burrows for a long way around, and wherever any small night creature was hunting or grazing or scavenging, a new and unforgettable fear came into being. Serafina watched from close by, and felt nothing but compassion until she looked at Will’s daemon, Kirjava the nightingale. She remembered talking to the witch Ruta Skadi, who had asked, after seeing Will only once, if Serafina had looked into his eyes; and Serafina had replied that she had not dared to. This little brown bird was radiating an implacable ferocity as palpable as heat, and Serafina was afraid of it. Finally Pantalaimon’s wild screaming died away, and Kirjava said: â€Å"And we have to tell them.† â€Å"Yes, you do,† said the witch gently. Gradually the ferocity left the gaze of the little brown bird, and Serafina could look at her again. She saw a desolate sadness in its place. â€Å"There is a ship coming,† Serafina said. â€Å"I left it to fly here and find you. I came with the gyptians, all the way from our world. They will be here in another day or so.† The two birds sat close, and in a moment they had changed their forms, becoming two doves. Serafina went on: â€Å"This may be the last time you fly. I can see a little ahead; I can see that you will both be able to climb this high as long as there are trees this size; but I think you will not be birds when your forms settle. Take in all that you can, and remember it well. I know that you and Lyra and Will are going to think hard and painfully, and I know you will make the best choice. But it is yours to make, and no one else’s.† They didn’t speak. She took her branch of cloud-pine and lifted away from the towering treetops, circling high above, feeling on her skin the coolness of the breeze and the tingle of the starlight and the benevolent sifting of that Dust she had never seen. She flew down to the village once more and went silently into the woman’s house. She knew nothing about Mary except that she came from the same world as Will, and that her part in the events was crucial. Whether she was fierce or friendly, Serafina had no way of telling; but she had to wake Mary up without startling her, and there was a spell for that. She sat on the floor at the woman’s head and watched through half-closed eyes, breathing in and out in time with her. Presently her half-vision began to show her the pale forms that Mary was seeing in her dreams, and she adjusted her mind to resonate with them, as if she were tuning a string. Then with a further effort Serafina herself stepped in among them. Once she was there, she could speak to Mary, and she did so with the instant easy affection that we sometimes feel for people we meet in dreams. A moment later they were talking together in a murmured rush of which Mary later remembered nothing, and walking through a silly landscape of reed beds and electrical transformers. It was time for Serafina to take charge. â€Å"In a few moments,† she said, â€Å"you’ll wake up. Don’t be alarmed. You’ll find me beside you. I’m waking you like this so you’ll know it’s quite safe and there’s nothing to hurt you. And then we can talk properly.† She withdrew, taking the dream-Mary with her, until she found herself in the house again, cross-legged on the earthen floor, with Mary’s eyes glittering as they looked at her. â€Å"You must be the witch,† Mary whispered. â€Å"I am. My name is Serafina Pekkala. What are you called?† â€Å"Mary Malone. I’ve never been woken so quietly. Am I awake?† â€Å"Yes. We must talk together, and dream talk is hard to control, and harder to remember. It’s better to talk awake. Do you prefer to stay inside, or will you walk with me in the moonlight?† â€Å"I’ll come,† said Mary, sitting up and stretching. â€Å"Where are the others?† â€Å"Asleep under the tree.† They moved out of the house and past the tree with its curtain of all-concealing leaves, and walked down to the river. Mary watched Serafina Pekkala with a mixture of wariness and admiration: she had never seen a human form so slender and graceful. She seemed younger than Mary herself, though Lyra had said she was hundreds of years old; the only hint of age came in her expression, which was full of a complicated sadness. They sat on the bank over the silver-black water, and Serafina told her that she had spoken to the children’s daemons. â€Å"They went looking for them today,† Mary said, â€Å"but something else happened. Will’s never seen his daemon. He didn’t know for certain that he had one.† â€Å"Well, he has. And so have you.† Mary stared at her. â€Å"If you could see him,† Serafina went on, â€Å"you would see a black bird with red legs and a bright yellow beak, slightly curved. A bird of the mountains.† â€Å"An Alpine chough†¦ How can you see him?† â€Å"With my eyes half-closed, I can see him. If we had time, I could teach you to see him, too, and to see the daemons of others in your world. It’s strange for us to think you can’t see them.† Then she told Mary what she had said to the daemons, and what it meant. â€Å"And the daemons will have to tell them?† Mary said. â€Å"I thought of waking them to tell them myself. I thought of telling you and letting you have the responsibility. But I saw their daemons, and I knew that would be best.† â€Å"They’re in love.† â€Å"I know.† â€Å"They’ve only just discovered it†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Mary tried to take in all the implications of what Serafina had told her, but it was too hard. After a minute or so Mary said, â€Å"Can you see Dust?† â€Å"No, I’ve never seen it, and until the wars began, we had never heard of it.† Mary took the spyglass from her pocket and handed it to the witch. Serafina put it to her eye and gasped. â€Å"That is Dust†¦ It’s beautiful!† â€Å"Turn to look back at the shelter tree.† Serafina did and exclaimed again. â€Å"They did this?† she said. â€Å"Something happened today, or yesterday if it’s after midnight,† Mary said, trying to find the words to explain, and remembering her vision of the Dust flow as a great river like the Mississippi. â€Å"Something tiny but crucial†¦ If you wanted to divert a mighty river into a different course, and all you had was a single pebble, you could do it, as long as you put the pebble in the right place to send the first trickle of water that way instead of this. Something like that happened yesterday. I don’t know what it was. They saw each other differently, or something†¦ Until then, they hadn’t felt like that, but suddenly they did. And then the Dust was attracted to them, very powerfully, and it stopped flowing the other way.† â€Å"So that was how it was to happen!† said Serafina, marveling. â€Å"And now it’s safe, or it will be when the angels fill the great chasm in the underworld.† She told Mary about the abyss, and about how she herself had found out. â€Å"I was flying high,† she explained, â€Å"looking for a landfall, and I met an angel: a female angel. She was very strange; she was old and young together,† she went on, forgetting that that was how she herself appeared to Mary. â€Å"Her name was Xaphania. She told me many things†¦ She said that all the history of human life has been a struggle between wisdom and stupidity. She and the rebel angels, the followers of wisdom, have always tried to open minds; the Authority and his churches have always tried to keep them closed. She gave me many examples from my world.† â€Å"I can think of many from mine.† â€Å"And for most of that time, wisdom has had to work in secret, whispering her words, moving like a spy through the humble places of the world while the courts and palaces are occupied by her enemies.† â€Å"Yes,† said Mary, â€Å"I recognize that, too.† â€Å"And the struggle isn’t over now, though the forces of the Kingdom have met a setback. They’ll regroup under a new commander and come back strongly, and we must be ready to resist.† â€Å"But what happened to Lord Asriel?† said Mary. â€Å"He fought the Regent of Heaven, the angel Metatron, and he wrestled him down into the abyss. Metatron is gone forever. So is Lord Asriel.† Mary caught her breath. â€Å"And Mrs. Coulter?† she said. As an answer the witch took an arrow from her quiver. She took her time selecting it: the best, the straightest, the most perfectly balanced. And she broke it in two. â€Å"Once in my world,† she said, â€Å"I saw that woman torturing a witch, and I swore to myself that I would send that arrow into her throat. Now I shall never do that. She sacrificed herself with Lord Asriel to fight the angel and make the world safe for Lyra. They could not have done it alone, but together they did it.† Mary, distressed, said, â€Å"How can we tell Lyra?† â€Å"Wait until she asks,† said Serafina. â€Å"And she might not. In any case, she has her symbol reader; that will tell her anything she wants to know.† They sat in silence for a while, companionably, as the stars slowly wheeled in the sky. â€Å"Can you see ahead and guess what they’ll choose to do?† said Mary. â€Å"No, but if Lyra returns to her own world, then I will be her sister as long as she lives. What will you do?† â€Å"I†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Mary began, and found she hadn’t considered that for a moment. â€Å"I suppose I belong in my own world. Though I’ll be sorry to leave this one; I’ve been very happy here. The happiest I’ve ever been in my life, I think.† â€Å"Well, if you do return home, you shall have a sister in another world,† said Serafina, â€Å"and so shall I. We shall see each other again in a day or so, when the ship arrives, and we’ll talk more on the voyage home; and then we’ll part forever. Embrace me now, sister.† Mary did so, and Serafina Pekkala flew away on her cloud-pine branch over the reeds, over the marshes, over the mudflats and the beach, and over the sea, until Mary could see her no more. At about the same time, one of the large blue lizards came across the body of Father Gomez. Will and Lyra had returned to the village that afternoon by a different route and hadn’t seen it; the priest lay undisturbed where Balthamos had laid him. The lizards were scavengers, but they were mild and harmless creatures, and by an ancient understanding with the mulefa, they were entitled to take any creature left dead after dark. The lizard dragged the priest’s body back to her nest, and her children feasted very well. As for the rifle, it lay in the grass where Father Gomez had laid it down, quietly turning to rust. How to cite The Amber Spyglass Chapter 36 The Broken Arrow, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Marketing Environment and Strategy of Tassa Samples for Students

Question: Study the Marketing Environment and Strategy of Tassa. Answer: Introduction Sustainable management practice in business refers to the management practices that aim to maintain economic viability and reduce the depletion of resources available for present and future generation. The main focus for sustainable business management practices is Tassal Group Limited. Tassal is a leading producer, processer and supplier of Atlantic Tasmania salmon fish. Some of the management practices that are sustainable used by Tassal encompass environmental management, sustainable business operation and business certification (Heath Brandt Nairn 2006, pp 410-419). Firstly, sustainable business environmental management aims to reduce depletion of resources available for present and future generation. Secondly, business operations that include processing of fish are structured to help in continuous operation and production through the year. Finally, to sustain the business, its operation and its position in the market the company lay down sustainable marketing strategies (Ritchi e 2002, pp 56). The following paper describes sustainable management and marketing strategies for Tassal. Marketing background Tassal group limited is a company that produces Tasmania Atlantic ocean salmon since 1986. Tassal is the leading producer of Atlantic salmon in Tasmania, Australia and employer of over 800 people all who are part of the share chain of salmon delicious Super food. There are different marketing strategies and operation management practices that are used by Tassal with the aim of sustaining business, production, processing facility and environment. To understand operation strategy for Tassal and its sustainable practices, it is quite important to explore the history of Tassal group limited (Hutter Hoffmann 2011, pp. 39-54). History of Tassal Group Limited The history of the Tassal can be traced back to 1986 when the company was opened up a marine site. Over the years Tassal has develop three main hatcheries located in different place across Tasmania in Australia. Tassal company was operating as privately owned company in Australia and as major public company listed on the ASX in November 2003. As part of marketing strategy Tassal has its head office in Hobart and other offices in Huonvile and Margate. Tassals main competitors are Petuna Seafood and Huon aquaculture all which are also situated in Tasmania. Since Tassals inception, Tassal has diversified its products range and are grouped into different brands (Roddy 2010, pg 30). Tassal Group Limited Products Tassal is a producer of fresh, smoked, frozen or canned Tasmanian Atlantic salmon. In addition, Tassal is leading exporter of salmon products through Australia. Some of the products of Tassal are grouped into brand and include Tassal, Tasmanian Smokehouse, De Costi Seafoodsand Superior Gold. Firstly, Tassal sell a range of products that supply customers with proteins. Secondly, De Costi Seafoods is a brand that includes different types of sea foods prepared in canned, frozen or smoked. Thirdly, Tasmanian Smokehouse also sells products that are traditionally smoked. Tasmanian Smokehouse products are sold in different independents retails though Australia. Finally, Superior Gold brand consist of range of products that are prepared from sophisticated smoking techniques (Charles et al 2011, pp 514). Sustainability management practices Tassal as a profound company does not engage only in profitability but also sustainability. In this connection, Tassal is heavily investing in sustainability practices and this involves environmental sustainability, promotion of fish health and good health fish processing practice. Tassal company is a steward of sustainable environmental practice and focus in strategies aiming at sustainable environment. To ensure ecological interaction, Tassal has sophisticated environmental monitoring and modeling programs that assess environmental interaction. Environmental monitoring program enable understanding of Water quality and changes in water quality in field and near field water. Moreover, Tassal conducts many different environmental research programs. Climatic change is also one of the key issues that concerns Tassal to ensure monitoring summer climatic change that is challenging fish growth and survival (Dainora 2010, p. 170). Tassal also strives to have good operations relationships with the communities around its facilities and society in general. To achieve customer relationship strategy, Tassal Limited provides health information to customers using their products. The second part of sustainability that Tassal takes part in is healthy fish farming practice. Tassal is the most developed institution practicing healthy fish farming practice under certification. In addition, Tassal Company has social operation license that determine the operations of the Tassal fish processing facility. Risk mitigation is also part of sustainable practice that ensure there is continuous assessment of risk and the risk likelihood citing the possible prevention measures to be implemented. Finally, sustainability reporting places Tassal Company on the lead throughout food industry (Rossiter Bellman 2005, pp 157-160). Supplier Tasmania Atlantic Salmon that Tassal reared is Salmo salar and was imported from Nova Scotia in Canada during the 1960s. Fertilized eggs were hatched in Gaden hatchery and firstly purchased in 1984. Purchased eggs of Tasmania Salmon marked the beginning of farming for Tasmania salmon. Dover, sea farm is approximately 130km in the vicinity of Hobart and a Wayatinah hatchery was developed at the Central Highlands. Dover is continuously supply Tassal salmon until the present day (Schmidt Eisend 2015, pp 415-428). Supply drivers There are three main divers for Tassal supply of salmon both in domestic market and global market. These supply drivers include world class infrastructure, building biomass and superior products. Firstly, Tassal operate in line the global sustainable practice risk mitigation and its likelihood. To ensure risk mitigation Tassal invest heavily on hatchery and continuously update the hatchery using the current state of art technology such as Rookwood Road Hatchery. In addition, Tassal has a processing facility fitted with the current technology that can support continuous salmon processing (Manternach 2011, p. 26). Secondly, the need for supply of quality products in the markets drives Tassal production and supply of salmon and related products. For the past 5 years Tassal has spent approximately $200m in marine value addition processing facility. All this efforts are to make Tassal producer of quality sustainable product for fish market. Thirdly, building biomass is another driver for production and supply of salmon or seafood to the market. Tassal is experiencing approximately $90m growth in salmon fish for the last five years. Within this fish livestock, there are approximately 3 years classes of salmon fish under Tassal waters (Rossiter Bellman 2005, pp 157-160). Marketing strategy for Tassal Domestic strategy Tassal develop a domestic strategy that aim at increasing per capita consumption of its products and sustainable practices. In this marketing strategy, the following are considered: increase domestic consumption of salmon, global oversupply, domestic volume growth, margin growth and market position. Marketing strategy of Tassal Tasmania salmon is based on the continuous increase of domestic consumption of salmon and salmon product in Australia. Tassals position in supply of salmon and other products to the market though is good, Tassal layout marketing strategy that will ensure that domestic consumption of its product does not fall below oversupply. In addition, Tassal being one of the most consumed brands of the company will be produced at central market position. The main aim of Tassal is to meet salmon demand in most retails within Australia so as to reduce any shortage in the near future (O'Malley Lichrou 2016, pp 37-52). The second component of Tassal marketing strategy encompasses global oversupply of Seafood. Tassal global supply needs to be doubled superseding the current market supply. This implies that Tassal intend to take a strategic position in the global market. To ensure this is achieved, sea transport of salmon has sustainable programs that aim to meet global healthy practices. This healthy practices aim to continuo supply without depleting environment and other resources. According to Hutter Hoffmann (2011, pp. 39-54), global oversupply at as 2011 was between $1.5-2.0 kg margins which are projected to increase by 38% within 10 years period. In domestic market, recent survey conducted by Tassal marketing research department indicates that there is need for domestic volume growth. The main challenge faced by increase in domestic volume is the reduction of price. According to Hosany and Lee (2013, pp 48-68), the domestic volume growth currently is 22%. Therefore the group is changing their focus on branding and product development. Another strategy includes pursuing opportunities for smoked salmon that is currently on demand. Moreover, Tassal has partner with WWF to ensure that supply of salmon is aligned to key retailers and wholesalers within Australia. As a marketing strategy margin growth is also developed to maximize growth of domestic consumption of Tassal products. It is observed that there is continuous fluctuation of salmon price in wholesalers. In addition, there is low retail export price that makes the domestic market the alternative. Even though there is margin erosion in the domestic market, this is still higher than the export margin. Therefore growing of per capita consumption strategy indicates that there will be a good return as compared to exports. Furthermore, oversupply in the global markets makes it not to be the main surplus supply outlet (Roddy 2010, pg 30). Finally, to ensure increase domestic per capita consumption of salmon products, Tassal position itself in the central supply chain of seafood in Australia. This implies that Tassal though is the main producer and supplier of Tasmania Atlantic salmon need to maintain its position and move beyond current position. Some promotional activities and brand awareness also are in place to maximize brand sales and sub-brand market entry (Schmidt Eisend 2015, pp 415-428). Marketing campaigns In order to build strategic proposition with wholesalers and retailers Tassal has strong marketing campaign strategy. The main aim of campaign is to build consumer preference for Tassal brands in the domestic market (Roddy 2010, pg 30). One of the most interesting activities during the campaign is to teach consumers how to eat salmon fish and some of Tassal products such as frozen salmon. It is also quite important to demonstrate to customers that salmon are healthy to consume and that Tassal is involved in sustainable practices. Marketing strategy also has cross-category channels in order to reach all Tassal category cannels. Finally, campaigns are meant to differentiate to customers the different products available in both retail and wholesale around Australia (Belch 2004, Pp 34). New product developments as marketing strategy for Tassal In order to attract more customers or consumers for salmon developing new products ensure diversification of Tassal products. During introduction of the new Tassal brand many advances are made to incorporate salmon into everyday cooking (Rossiter Bellman 2005, pp 157-160). Evaluate market research is used to test the adaptability of the new brand. Another new brand development focuses on diversification of seafood. Usage of seafood as main source of protein in the market will make the Tassal company an innovative brand developer. The move is not to cannibalize salmon sales but to ensure complementary sales. Therefore to achieve this Tassal is selling basket full of seafood (Jones Monieson 2001, p.92). Marketing mix that Tassal Company uses Marketing mix or 4ps is the marketing strategy that many business uses to achieve marketing objectives. As Belch (2012, pp 147- 158) lists the marketing mix, marketing mix consists of 4ps namely: product, price, promotion and place. Product Products of Tassal Company consist of a range of brands developed in line with companys objective, customers taste, and sustainability practice and health recommendations. Unlike Huon Aquaculture Group that which is the main competitor and concentrated on fresh fish, Tassal has range of products such as canned, smoked and frozen fish. There are also similarities in some product sold by Tassal Company and Huon Aquaculture Group such as hog, though Tassal has many value added products. Another Tassal competitor is Petuna Seafood that also major mostly in other seafood contrary to Tassal that produce both seafood and many more salmon fish product (Egan 2011, pp 42-43). Price Pricing of fish and other seafood remain a challenge to fishing industry with Tassal, Huon and Petuna Seafood focusing on domestic market rather than export. According to financial records, Tassal has remained the main supplier of salmon fish and other seafood in the Tasmania market. It has been recently realized that Huon is becoming more profitable than Tassal due to low fish mortalities and good sales strategy in Australia. Prices of salmon fish remain low in the international market affecting all the three players in the fish industry in Tasmania, namely: Huon, Petuna and Tassal. To protect these three competing companies from domestic price fluctuation there is strict quarantine regulation regarding importation of fish in Australia (Rossiter Bellman 2005, pp 157-160). Promotion Tassal as a giant company has a good product promotion strategy that employs advertisements, campaigns, and product promotion. One of Tassals successful product promotion strategies was launch of TV show in September 2012 that was expected to run for three years. During this TV shows viewers could watch how to prepare different dishes of salmon (McNaughton 2008, p. 303-305). The TV show known as Tassal pure Tasmanian salmon was this leading communication tool for Tassal Company. Huon aquaculture on the other side uses avenue such as public offer day as part of company public relation and campaign. During open public offer day the company also takes opportunity to convince customers on Huon as customers preference source of fish (Driesener et al 2004, pp 70-80). Place The main distribution channel for Tassal that begins from the hatchery facility fitted with modern technology at Rookwood Road Hatchery. It is estimated that the hatchery produces more than 10 million molts per year that are then taken to the sea. Tassal has 6 marine units that are used to hold approximately 120 tones of salmon at harvest. After harvest some Tassal fish are taken to processing facility where smoked salmon are processed in value addition stage. The three salmon producing companies are located in Tasmania in Australia. According to Enright (2002, p. 454-55), the three main competing salmon producers have closer distribution channels. Tassal leads fish producing farms supply of salmon and salmon products in retails and wholesalers across Australia and international market. Competitive advantage of Tassal Tassal has three main areas of focus to be competitive in the domestic and global market. The three main areas of focus include sustainability, increase per capita consumption and building brand strength. Firstly, as a key player in the food, fish and sustainable management practices, Tassal focus on building sustainable production, processing and operation that focuses on sustainable management. Secondly, the main marketing strategy of Tassal is to increase per capita consumption of salmon fish. According to Belch and Powell (2009, p.126), to achieve growth strategy most of emphasis is on the domestic market as oppose to export that has low prices. This domestic market strategy is also used by Huon Aquaculture the main competitor of Tassal. Finally, building brand strength is also strategy used by Tassal that is only limited to the company. Tassal has embarks on building new brands and promoting the existing brands. This is to increase customer preference and reduce company weakness es such as high mortality rate of livestock (Roddy 2010, pg 30). Recommendations for improved marketing mix Over the past few years Tassal has been greatly challenged by its main competitor Huon Aquaculture. This indicates that the marketing strategies used by Tassal need some improvement. One of the key areas to be considered for improvement is product promotion and pricing. As part of marketing mix setting products price, Tassal need to consider product demand since its prices are criticized by consumers setting stage for its competitors to be preferred by customers (Lehu 2007, p. 20). Secondly, according to marketing director for Tassal, some of Tassals products have reduced price offer to attract more customers. The remaining product promotion strategy that Tassal need to improve on is the product promotion gifts. This strategy will help build product strength in the market and draw more customers for its products (Dainora 2010, p. 170). Conclusion In conclusion, Tassal remains sustainable business organization in Tasmania, Australia and beyond in production, processing and supply of salmon fish products. The sustainability management practices and marketing strategy that Tassal uses making it continuously produce fish, process, and supply and add value to salmon fish as compared to its main competitors Petuna Seafood and Huon Aquaculture. Supply and distribution of salmon fish products are aided by state of the art technological infrastructure that Tassal uses. Tassal own large fish hatchery and processing facility that produces fish throughout the year in addition to its sustainable management. 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Journal of Advertising, vol.44, no 4, pp 415-428. 2%) Tassal Group, Ltd