Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Effects Of Media Violence On Children - 974 Words

Nowadays, people have more ways to access many kinds of media, like Internet, video game, television and film. It is generally believed that some of the bad information such as violent content in the media can have a negative effect on people, and it can end up causing some social problem. It is clear that children are more likely to be influenced by media violence than other age groups because of their world outlook and personality are not formed. Furthermore is if media violence does have some profound influence on children, this will lead to more social problems in the next generation. If people do not want their children to be affected by media violence, each person should pay attention in how to solve this problem. The thesis will focus on discussing the effects on children caused by media violence, and social problems caused by these effects, then give solutions. Specifically, children are influenced by media violence because media are lack supervision, therefore It can be reso lved through Legislative limit and family regulation. The main reason for this problem is that children can be easily exposed to violence in the media. There is no doubt that if children can access to media violence by freely, there must be some deficiencies in the supervision and restriction aspects of these media. Cantoret(1998) suggest that there are more violence be added in the media because it can attract more audiences, then get more business interests (p. 89). On the other hand, inShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children873 Words   |  4 Pages According to the Media Education Foundation, once a child reaches eighteen years of age, they have witnessed around 200,000 acts of violence and 16,000 murders ( Our society loves entertainment and a grand portion of this entertainment contains violence. Children constantly consume violent visuals, due to their prevalence. Majority of our society is uninterested in the effects of media violence si nce its effects do not show immediately. Misinformation is our greatest enemy in theRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children884 Words   |  4 Pagesis all this necessary to fabricate in the media? What are characters in movies teaching kids? What about the language in music talking about killing people and talking about violence like it’s the cool thing? What about new channels always talking about guns, bombs and threats to the public, is this what is influencing are children because they view it as a norm? Some may agree with this as others may disagree. Media violence is not the factor in violence today. Studies show that over 90% of homesRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1357 Words   |  6 Pagesthe graphic cruelty and violence. According to American Psychological Association, the harmful influence of media violence on children dates back to the 1950s and 1960s, and remains strong today. A child that watches violence or hears about violence can be influenced to become violent. Indeed, in reviewing the totality of empirical evidence regarding the impact of media violence, the conclusion that exposure to violent portrayals poses a risk of harmful effects on children has been reached by theRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1943 Words   |  8 PagesFor many years now, the media has been a big part of our lives. Almost everybody in the world is or has connected to it one way or another. It is a way for families and friends to have fun together, for interesting topics that people are interested in, or to just enjoy alone. However, there is a problem that can be seen across all types of media: violence. Violence can be seen as a distraught way to get over problems. There is judgement issues involved for violence. It is done by bullies in schoolRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children2411 Words   |  10 PagesMedia Violence is definitely harmful to children as the exposure of media violence can desensitize children (age 6-12) to violence and in the real world; violence becomes enjoyable and does not result in apprehensiveness in the child. There have been several studies and experiments regarding the adverse effects of violence used in video games, television, as well as movies. With both preschool and school-aged children, studies have found that they are more likely to imitate the violence they seeRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children2122 Words   |  9 Pagesexposed to various types of media, for example books or magazines, television, song lyrics, video games, and movies. Media often portrays, aggressive action, behaviour, and violence. This content can negatively affect not only adolescents and adults, but can have an even greater effect on children even from the moment they are exposed to it. Children who are exposed to violence in the media may display aggressive and violent behaviour. Young people especially children under the age of eight thisRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1903 Words   |  8 Pagesdepict different forms of violence. Some people feel that there is too much violence exposed in the media. Many studies have made the claim that the media is responsible for much of the violence seen in the world we live in. However, people have choices and responsibilities we cannot allow ourselves to blame it on other things such as the media. The violence seen in our media has an impact on both adults and children. Since children are also exposed to various forms of media, there has been additionalRead MoreEffects of Media Violence on Children2430 Words   |  10 PagesThe Effect of Media Violence on Children and Levels of Aggression. It has been said that children are like sponges when it comes to attaining knowledge. This seems to be true whether they are learning to speak or how to show emotion. Feelings and emotions become more imminent once children begin to go through adolescents. Children acquire the ability to aggression, sadness, and happiness more readily. Males typically exhibit higher levels of aggression then females according to some researchRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1270 Words   |  6 Pagesdifferent forms of violence. Some people feel that there is too much violence exposed in the media. Many studies have made the claim that the media is responsible for much of the violence seen in the world we live in (List and Wolfgang). However, people have choices and responsibilities we cannot allow ourselves to blame it on other things such as the media. The violence seen in our media has an impact on both adults and children. Since children are also exposed to various forms of media, there has beenRead MoreWhat Is the Effect of Media Violence on Children1314 Words   |  6 PagesYasser Abdelaziz Ms. Williams English 1010-18 13, December 2010 The Effect of Media Violence on Children Although very little research was done on it in the past, media violence has sparked much controversy in recent history. As technology becomes more advanced, new methods of uncovering the media’s effects on children have emerged. Advances in Neuroscience, for example, can become tools to understanding the effects media violence has from a psychological standpoint. The brain in its underpinnings

Friday, December 13, 2019

The Amber Spyglass Chapter 36 The Broken Arrow Free Essays

The two daemons moved through the silent village, in and out of the shadows, padding cat-formed across the moonlit gathering-floor, pausing outside the open door of Mary’s house. Cautiously they looked inside and saw only the sleeping woman; so they withdrew and moved through the moonlight again, toward the shelter tree. Its long branches trailed their fragrant corkscrew leaves almost down to the ground. We will write a custom essay sample on The Amber Spyglass Chapter 36 The Broken Arrow or any similar topic only for you Order Now Very slowly, very careful not to rustle a leaf or snap a fallen twig, the two shapes slipped in through the leaf curtain and saw what they were seeking: the boy and the girl, fast asleep in each other’s arms. They moved closer over the grass and touched the sleepers softly with nose, paw, whiskers, bathing in the life-giving warmth they gave off, but being infinitely careful not to wake them. As they checked their people (gently cleaning Will’s fast-healing wound, lifting the lock of hair off Lyra’s face), there was a soft sound behind them. Instantly, in total silence, both daemons sprang around, becoming wolves: mad light eyes, bare white teeth, menace in every line. A woman stood there, outlined by the moon. It was not Mary, and when she spoke, they heard her clearly, though her voice made no sound. â€Å"Come with me,† she said. Pantalaimon’s daemon heart leapt within him, but he said nothing until he could greet her away from the sleepers under the tree. â€Å"Serafina Pekkala!† he said joyfully. â€Å"Where have you been? Do you know what’s happened?† â€Å"Hush. Let’s fly to a place where we can talk,† she said, mindful of the sleeping villagers. Her branch of cloud-pine lay by the door of Mary’s house, and as she took it up, the two daemons changed into birds – a nightingale, an owl – and flew with her over the thatched roofs, over the grasslands, over the ridge, and toward the nearest wheel tree grove, as huge as a castle, its crown looking like curds of silver in the moonlight. There Serafina Pekkala settled on the highest comfortable branch, among the open flowers drinking in the Dust, and the two birds perched nearby. â€Å"You won’t be birds for long,† she said. â€Å"Very soon now your shapes will settle. Look around and take this sight into your memory.† â€Å"What will we be?† said Pantalaimon. â€Å"You’ll find out sooner than you think. Listen,† said Serafina Pekkala, â€Å"and I’ll tell you some witch-lore that none but witches know. The reason I can do that is that you are here with me, and your humans are down there, sleeping. Who are the only people for whom that is possible?† â€Å"Witches,† said Pantalaimon, â€Å"and shamans. So†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"In leaving you both on the shores of the world of the dead, Lyra and Will did something, without knowing it, that witches have done since the first time there were witches. There’s a region of our north land, a desolate, abominable place, where a great catastrophe happened in the childhood of the world, and where nothing has lived since. No daemons can enter it. To become a witch, a girl must cross it alone and leave her daemon behind. You know the suffering they must undergo. But having done it, they find that their daemons were not severed, as in Bolvangar; they are still one whole being; but now they can roam free, and go to far places and see strange things and bring back knowledge. â€Å"And you are not severed, are you?† â€Å"No,† said Pantalaimon. â€Å"We are still one. But it was so painful, and we were so frightened†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"Well,† said Serafina, â€Å"the two of them will not fly like witches, and they will not live as long as we do; but thanks to what they did, you and they are witch in all but that.† The two daemons considered the strangeness of this knowledge. â€Å"Does that mean we shall be birds, like witches’ daemons?† said Pantalaimon. â€Å"Be patient.† â€Å"And how can Will be a witch? I thought all witches were female.† â€Å"Those two have changed many things. We are all learning new ways, even witches. But one thing hasn’t changed: you must help your humans, not hinder them. You must help them and guide them and encourage them toward wisdom. That’s what daemons are for.† They were silent. Serafina turned to the nightingale and said, â€Å"What is your name?† â€Å"I have no name. I didn’t know I was born until I was torn away from his heart.† â€Å"Then I shall name you Kirjava.† â€Å"Kirjava,† said Pantalaimon, trying the sound. â€Å"What does it mean?† â€Å"Soon you will see what it means. But now,† Serafina went on, â€Å"you must listen carefully, because I’m going to tell you what you should do.† â€Å"No,† said Kirjava forcefully. Serafina said gently, â€Å"I can hear from your tone that you know what I’m going to say.† â€Å"We don’t want to hear it!† said Pantalaimon. â€Å"It’s too soon,† said the nightingale. â€Å"It’s much too soon.† Serafina was silent, because she agreed with them, and she felt sorrowful. She was the wisest one there, and she had to guide them to what was right; but she let their agitation subside before she went on. â€Å"Where did you go, in your wanderings?† she said. â€Å"Through many worlds,† said Pantalaimon. â€Å"Everywhere we found a window, we went through. There are more windows than we thought.† â€Å"And you saw – â€Å" â€Å"Yes,† said Kirjava, â€Å"we looked closely, and we saw what was happening.† â€Å"We saw many other things. We met an angel,† said Pantalaimon quickly. â€Å"And we saw the world where the little people come from, the Gallivespians. There are big people there, too, who try and kill them.† They told the witch more of what they’d seen, and they were trying to distract her, and she knew it; but she let them talk, because of the love each one had for the other’s voice. But eventually they ran out of things to tell her, and they fell silent. The only sound was the gentle, endless whisper of the leaves, until Serafina Pekkala said: â€Å"You have been keeping away from Will and Lyra to punish them. I know why you’re doing that; my Kaisa did just the same after I came through the desolate barrens. But he came to me eventually, because we loved each other still. And they will need you soon to help them do what has to be done next. Because you have to tell them what you know.† Pantalaimon cried aloud, a pure, cold owl cry, a sound never heard in that world before. In nests and burrows for a long way around, and wherever any small night creature was hunting or grazing or scavenging, a new and unforgettable fear came into being. Serafina watched from close by, and felt nothing but compassion until she looked at Will’s daemon, Kirjava the nightingale. She remembered talking to the witch Ruta Skadi, who had asked, after seeing Will only once, if Serafina had looked into his eyes; and Serafina had replied that she had not dared to. This little brown bird was radiating an implacable ferocity as palpable as heat, and Serafina was afraid of it. Finally Pantalaimon’s wild screaming died away, and Kirjava said: â€Å"And we have to tell them.† â€Å"Yes, you do,† said the witch gently. Gradually the ferocity left the gaze of the little brown bird, and Serafina could look at her again. She saw a desolate sadness in its place. â€Å"There is a ship coming,† Serafina said. â€Å"I left it to fly here and find you. I came with the gyptians, all the way from our world. They will be here in another day or so.† The two birds sat close, and in a moment they had changed their forms, becoming two doves. Serafina went on: â€Å"This may be the last time you fly. I can see a little ahead; I can see that you will both be able to climb this high as long as there are trees this size; but I think you will not be birds when your forms settle. Take in all that you can, and remember it well. I know that you and Lyra and Will are going to think hard and painfully, and I know you will make the best choice. But it is yours to make, and no one else’s.† They didn’t speak. She took her branch of cloud-pine and lifted away from the towering treetops, circling high above, feeling on her skin the coolness of the breeze and the tingle of the starlight and the benevolent sifting of that Dust she had never seen. She flew down to the village once more and went silently into the woman’s house. She knew nothing about Mary except that she came from the same world as Will, and that her part in the events was crucial. Whether she was fierce or friendly, Serafina had no way of telling; but she had to wake Mary up without startling her, and there was a spell for that. She sat on the floor at the woman’s head and watched through half-closed eyes, breathing in and out in time with her. Presently her half-vision began to show her the pale forms that Mary was seeing in her dreams, and she adjusted her mind to resonate with them, as if she were tuning a string. Then with a further effort Serafina herself stepped in among them. Once she was there, she could speak to Mary, and she did so with the instant easy affection that we sometimes feel for people we meet in dreams. A moment later they were talking together in a murmured rush of which Mary later remembered nothing, and walking through a silly landscape of reed beds and electrical transformers. It was time for Serafina to take charge. â€Å"In a few moments,† she said, â€Å"you’ll wake up. Don’t be alarmed. You’ll find me beside you. I’m waking you like this so you’ll know it’s quite safe and there’s nothing to hurt you. And then we can talk properly.† She withdrew, taking the dream-Mary with her, until she found herself in the house again, cross-legged on the earthen floor, with Mary’s eyes glittering as they looked at her. â€Å"You must be the witch,† Mary whispered. â€Å"I am. My name is Serafina Pekkala. What are you called?† â€Å"Mary Malone. I’ve never been woken so quietly. Am I awake?† â€Å"Yes. We must talk together, and dream talk is hard to control, and harder to remember. It’s better to talk awake. Do you prefer to stay inside, or will you walk with me in the moonlight?† â€Å"I’ll come,† said Mary, sitting up and stretching. â€Å"Where are the others?† â€Å"Asleep under the tree.† They moved out of the house and past the tree with its curtain of all-concealing leaves, and walked down to the river. Mary watched Serafina Pekkala with a mixture of wariness and admiration: she had never seen a human form so slender and graceful. She seemed younger than Mary herself, though Lyra had said she was hundreds of years old; the only hint of age came in her expression, which was full of a complicated sadness. They sat on the bank over the silver-black water, and Serafina told her that she had spoken to the children’s daemons. â€Å"They went looking for them today,† Mary said, â€Å"but something else happened. Will’s never seen his daemon. He didn’t know for certain that he had one.† â€Å"Well, he has. And so have you.† Mary stared at her. â€Å"If you could see him,† Serafina went on, â€Å"you would see a black bird with red legs and a bright yellow beak, slightly curved. A bird of the mountains.† â€Å"An Alpine chough†¦ How can you see him?† â€Å"With my eyes half-closed, I can see him. If we had time, I could teach you to see him, too, and to see the daemons of others in your world. It’s strange for us to think you can’t see them.† Then she told Mary what she had said to the daemons, and what it meant. â€Å"And the daemons will have to tell them?† Mary said. â€Å"I thought of waking them to tell them myself. I thought of telling you and letting you have the responsibility. But I saw their daemons, and I knew that would be best.† â€Å"They’re in love.† â€Å"I know.† â€Å"They’ve only just discovered it†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Mary tried to take in all the implications of what Serafina had told her, but it was too hard. After a minute or so Mary said, â€Å"Can you see Dust?† â€Å"No, I’ve never seen it, and until the wars began, we had never heard of it.† Mary took the spyglass from her pocket and handed it to the witch. Serafina put it to her eye and gasped. â€Å"That is Dust†¦ It’s beautiful!† â€Å"Turn to look back at the shelter tree.† Serafina did and exclaimed again. â€Å"They did this?† she said. â€Å"Something happened today, or yesterday if it’s after midnight,† Mary said, trying to find the words to explain, and remembering her vision of the Dust flow as a great river like the Mississippi. â€Å"Something tiny but crucial†¦ If you wanted to divert a mighty river into a different course, and all you had was a single pebble, you could do it, as long as you put the pebble in the right place to send the first trickle of water that way instead of this. Something like that happened yesterday. I don’t know what it was. They saw each other differently, or something†¦ Until then, they hadn’t felt like that, but suddenly they did. And then the Dust was attracted to them, very powerfully, and it stopped flowing the other way.† â€Å"So that was how it was to happen!† said Serafina, marveling. â€Å"And now it’s safe, or it will be when the angels fill the great chasm in the underworld.† She told Mary about the abyss, and about how she herself had found out. â€Å"I was flying high,† she explained, â€Å"looking for a landfall, and I met an angel: a female angel. She was very strange; she was old and young together,† she went on, forgetting that that was how she herself appeared to Mary. â€Å"Her name was Xaphania. She told me many things†¦ She said that all the history of human life has been a struggle between wisdom and stupidity. She and the rebel angels, the followers of wisdom, have always tried to open minds; the Authority and his churches have always tried to keep them closed. She gave me many examples from my world.† â€Å"I can think of many from mine.† â€Å"And for most of that time, wisdom has had to work in secret, whispering her words, moving like a spy through the humble places of the world while the courts and palaces are occupied by her enemies.† â€Å"Yes,† said Mary, â€Å"I recognize that, too.† â€Å"And the struggle isn’t over now, though the forces of the Kingdom have met a setback. They’ll regroup under a new commander and come back strongly, and we must be ready to resist.† â€Å"But what happened to Lord Asriel?† said Mary. â€Å"He fought the Regent of Heaven, the angel Metatron, and he wrestled him down into the abyss. Metatron is gone forever. So is Lord Asriel.† Mary caught her breath. â€Å"And Mrs. Coulter?† she said. As an answer the witch took an arrow from her quiver. She took her time selecting it: the best, the straightest, the most perfectly balanced. And she broke it in two. â€Å"Once in my world,† she said, â€Å"I saw that woman torturing a witch, and I swore to myself that I would send that arrow into her throat. Now I shall never do that. She sacrificed herself with Lord Asriel to fight the angel and make the world safe for Lyra. They could not have done it alone, but together they did it.† Mary, distressed, said, â€Å"How can we tell Lyra?† â€Å"Wait until she asks,† said Serafina. â€Å"And she might not. In any case, she has her symbol reader; that will tell her anything she wants to know.† They sat in silence for a while, companionably, as the stars slowly wheeled in the sky. â€Å"Can you see ahead and guess what they’ll choose to do?† said Mary. â€Å"No, but if Lyra returns to her own world, then I will be her sister as long as she lives. What will you do?† â€Å"I†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Mary began, and found she hadn’t considered that for a moment. â€Å"I suppose I belong in my own world. Though I’ll be sorry to leave this one; I’ve been very happy here. The happiest I’ve ever been in my life, I think.† â€Å"Well, if you do return home, you shall have a sister in another world,† said Serafina, â€Å"and so shall I. We shall see each other again in a day or so, when the ship arrives, and we’ll talk more on the voyage home; and then we’ll part forever. Embrace me now, sister.† Mary did so, and Serafina Pekkala flew away on her cloud-pine branch over the reeds, over the marshes, over the mudflats and the beach, and over the sea, until Mary could see her no more. At about the same time, one of the large blue lizards came across the body of Father Gomez. Will and Lyra had returned to the village that afternoon by a different route and hadn’t seen it; the priest lay undisturbed where Balthamos had laid him. The lizards were scavengers, but they were mild and harmless creatures, and by an ancient understanding with the mulefa, they were entitled to take any creature left dead after dark. The lizard dragged the priest’s body back to her nest, and her children feasted very well. As for the rifle, it lay in the grass where Father Gomez had laid it down, quietly turning to rust. How to cite The Amber Spyglass Chapter 36 The Broken Arrow, Essay examples

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Marketing Environment and Strategy of Tassa Samples for Students

Question: Study the Marketing Environment and Strategy of Tassa. Answer: Introduction Sustainable management practice in business refers to the management practices that aim to maintain economic viability and reduce the depletion of resources available for present and future generation. The main focus for sustainable business management practices is Tassal Group Limited. Tassal is a leading producer, processer and supplier of Atlantic Tasmania salmon fish. Some of the management practices that are sustainable used by Tassal encompass environmental management, sustainable business operation and business certification (Heath Brandt Nairn 2006, pp 410-419). Firstly, sustainable business environmental management aims to reduce depletion of resources available for present and future generation. Secondly, business operations that include processing of fish are structured to help in continuous operation and production through the year. Finally, to sustain the business, its operation and its position in the market the company lay down sustainable marketing strategies (Ritchi e 2002, pp 56). The following paper describes sustainable management and marketing strategies for Tassal. Marketing background Tassal group limited is a company that produces Tasmania Atlantic ocean salmon since 1986. Tassal is the leading producer of Atlantic salmon in Tasmania, Australia and employer of over 800 people all who are part of the share chain of salmon delicious Super food. There are different marketing strategies and operation management practices that are used by Tassal with the aim of sustaining business, production, processing facility and environment. To understand operation strategy for Tassal and its sustainable practices, it is quite important to explore the history of Tassal group limited (Hutter Hoffmann 2011, pp. 39-54). History of Tassal Group Limited The history of the Tassal can be traced back to 1986 when the company was opened up a marine site. Over the years Tassal has develop three main hatcheries located in different place across Tasmania in Australia. Tassal company was operating as privately owned company in Australia and as major public company listed on the ASX in November 2003. As part of marketing strategy Tassal has its head office in Hobart and other offices in Huonvile and Margate. Tassals main competitors are Petuna Seafood and Huon aquaculture all which are also situated in Tasmania. Since Tassals inception, Tassal has diversified its products range and are grouped into different brands (Roddy 2010, pg 30). Tassal Group Limited Products Tassal is a producer of fresh, smoked, frozen or canned Tasmanian Atlantic salmon. In addition, Tassal is leading exporter of salmon products through Australia. Some of the products of Tassal are grouped into brand and include Tassal, Tasmanian Smokehouse, De Costi Seafoodsand Superior Gold. Firstly, Tassal sell a range of products that supply customers with proteins. Secondly, De Costi Seafoods is a brand that includes different types of sea foods prepared in canned, frozen or smoked. Thirdly, Tasmanian Smokehouse also sells products that are traditionally smoked. Tasmanian Smokehouse products are sold in different independents retails though Australia. Finally, Superior Gold brand consist of range of products that are prepared from sophisticated smoking techniques (Charles et al 2011, pp 514). Sustainability management practices Tassal as a profound company does not engage only in profitability but also sustainability. In this connection, Tassal is heavily investing in sustainability practices and this involves environmental sustainability, promotion of fish health and good health fish processing practice. Tassal company is a steward of sustainable environmental practice and focus in strategies aiming at sustainable environment. To ensure ecological interaction, Tassal has sophisticated environmental monitoring and modeling programs that assess environmental interaction. Environmental monitoring program enable understanding of Water quality and changes in water quality in field and near field water. Moreover, Tassal conducts many different environmental research programs. Climatic change is also one of the key issues that concerns Tassal to ensure monitoring summer climatic change that is challenging fish growth and survival (Dainora 2010, p. 170). Tassal also strives to have good operations relationships with the communities around its facilities and society in general. To achieve customer relationship strategy, Tassal Limited provides health information to customers using their products. The second part of sustainability that Tassal takes part in is healthy fish farming practice. Tassal is the most developed institution practicing healthy fish farming practice under certification. In addition, Tassal Company has social operation license that determine the operations of the Tassal fish processing facility. Risk mitigation is also part of sustainable practice that ensure there is continuous assessment of risk and the risk likelihood citing the possible prevention measures to be implemented. Finally, sustainability reporting places Tassal Company on the lead throughout food industry (Rossiter Bellman 2005, pp 157-160). Supplier Tasmania Atlantic Salmon that Tassal reared is Salmo salar and was imported from Nova Scotia in Canada during the 1960s. Fertilized eggs were hatched in Gaden hatchery and firstly purchased in 1984. Purchased eggs of Tasmania Salmon marked the beginning of farming for Tasmania salmon. Dover, sea farm is approximately 130km in the vicinity of Hobart and a Wayatinah hatchery was developed at the Central Highlands. Dover is continuously supply Tassal salmon until the present day (Schmidt Eisend 2015, pp 415-428). Supply drivers There are three main divers for Tassal supply of salmon both in domestic market and global market. These supply drivers include world class infrastructure, building biomass and superior products. Firstly, Tassal operate in line the global sustainable practice risk mitigation and its likelihood. To ensure risk mitigation Tassal invest heavily on hatchery and continuously update the hatchery using the current state of art technology such as Rookwood Road Hatchery. In addition, Tassal has a processing facility fitted with the current technology that can support continuous salmon processing (Manternach 2011, p. 26). Secondly, the need for supply of quality products in the markets drives Tassal production and supply of salmon and related products. For the past 5 years Tassal has spent approximately $200m in marine value addition processing facility. All this efforts are to make Tassal producer of quality sustainable product for fish market. Thirdly, building biomass is another driver for production and supply of salmon or seafood to the market. Tassal is experiencing approximately $90m growth in salmon fish for the last five years. Within this fish livestock, there are approximately 3 years classes of salmon fish under Tassal waters (Rossiter Bellman 2005, pp 157-160). Marketing strategy for Tassal Domestic strategy Tassal develop a domestic strategy that aim at increasing per capita consumption of its products and sustainable practices. In this marketing strategy, the following are considered: increase domestic consumption of salmon, global oversupply, domestic volume growth, margin growth and market position. Marketing strategy of Tassal Tasmania salmon is based on the continuous increase of domestic consumption of salmon and salmon product in Australia. Tassals position in supply of salmon and other products to the market though is good, Tassal layout marketing strategy that will ensure that domestic consumption of its product does not fall below oversupply. In addition, Tassal being one of the most consumed brands of the company will be produced at central market position. The main aim of Tassal is to meet salmon demand in most retails within Australia so as to reduce any shortage in the near future (O'Malley Lichrou 2016, pp 37-52). The second component of Tassal marketing strategy encompasses global oversupply of Seafood. Tassal global supply needs to be doubled superseding the current market supply. This implies that Tassal intend to take a strategic position in the global market. To ensure this is achieved, sea transport of salmon has sustainable programs that aim to meet global healthy practices. This healthy practices aim to continuo supply without depleting environment and other resources. According to Hutter Hoffmann (2011, pp. 39-54), global oversupply at as 2011 was between $1.5-2.0 kg margins which are projected to increase by 38% within 10 years period. In domestic market, recent survey conducted by Tassal marketing research department indicates that there is need for domestic volume growth. The main challenge faced by increase in domestic volume is the reduction of price. According to Hosany and Lee (2013, pp 48-68), the domestic volume growth currently is 22%. Therefore the group is changing their focus on branding and product development. Another strategy includes pursuing opportunities for smoked salmon that is currently on demand. Moreover, Tassal has partner with WWF to ensure that supply of salmon is aligned to key retailers and wholesalers within Australia. As a marketing strategy margin growth is also developed to maximize growth of domestic consumption of Tassal products. It is observed that there is continuous fluctuation of salmon price in wholesalers. In addition, there is low retail export price that makes the domestic market the alternative. Even though there is margin erosion in the domestic market, this is still higher than the export margin. Therefore growing of per capita consumption strategy indicates that there will be a good return as compared to exports. Furthermore, oversupply in the global markets makes it not to be the main surplus supply outlet (Roddy 2010, pg 30). Finally, to ensure increase domestic per capita consumption of salmon products, Tassal position itself in the central supply chain of seafood in Australia. This implies that Tassal though is the main producer and supplier of Tasmania Atlantic salmon need to maintain its position and move beyond current position. Some promotional activities and brand awareness also are in place to maximize brand sales and sub-brand market entry (Schmidt Eisend 2015, pp 415-428). Marketing campaigns In order to build strategic proposition with wholesalers and retailers Tassal has strong marketing campaign strategy. The main aim of campaign is to build consumer preference for Tassal brands in the domestic market (Roddy 2010, pg 30). One of the most interesting activities during the campaign is to teach consumers how to eat salmon fish and some of Tassal products such as frozen salmon. It is also quite important to demonstrate to customers that salmon are healthy to consume and that Tassal is involved in sustainable practices. Marketing strategy also has cross-category channels in order to reach all Tassal category cannels. Finally, campaigns are meant to differentiate to customers the different products available in both retail and wholesale around Australia (Belch 2004, Pp 34). New product developments as marketing strategy for Tassal In order to attract more customers or consumers for salmon developing new products ensure diversification of Tassal products. During introduction of the new Tassal brand many advances are made to incorporate salmon into everyday cooking (Rossiter Bellman 2005, pp 157-160). Evaluate market research is used to test the adaptability of the new brand. Another new brand development focuses on diversification of seafood. Usage of seafood as main source of protein in the market will make the Tassal company an innovative brand developer. The move is not to cannibalize salmon sales but to ensure complementary sales. Therefore to achieve this Tassal is selling basket full of seafood (Jones Monieson 2001, p.92). Marketing mix that Tassal Company uses Marketing mix or 4ps is the marketing strategy that many business uses to achieve marketing objectives. As Belch (2012, pp 147- 158) lists the marketing mix, marketing mix consists of 4ps namely: product, price, promotion and place. Product Products of Tassal Company consist of a range of brands developed in line with companys objective, customers taste, and sustainability practice and health recommendations. Unlike Huon Aquaculture Group that which is the main competitor and concentrated on fresh fish, Tassal has range of products such as canned, smoked and frozen fish. There are also similarities in some product sold by Tassal Company and Huon Aquaculture Group such as hog, though Tassal has many value added products. Another Tassal competitor is Petuna Seafood that also major mostly in other seafood contrary to Tassal that produce both seafood and many more salmon fish product (Egan 2011, pp 42-43). Price Pricing of fish and other seafood remain a challenge to fishing industry with Tassal, Huon and Petuna Seafood focusing on domestic market rather than export. According to financial records, Tassal has remained the main supplier of salmon fish and other seafood in the Tasmania market. It has been recently realized that Huon is becoming more profitable than Tassal due to low fish mortalities and good sales strategy in Australia. Prices of salmon fish remain low in the international market affecting all the three players in the fish industry in Tasmania, namely: Huon, Petuna and Tassal. To protect these three competing companies from domestic price fluctuation there is strict quarantine regulation regarding importation of fish in Australia (Rossiter Bellman 2005, pp 157-160). Promotion Tassal as a giant company has a good product promotion strategy that employs advertisements, campaigns, and product promotion. One of Tassals successful product promotion strategies was launch of TV show in September 2012 that was expected to run for three years. During this TV shows viewers could watch how to prepare different dishes of salmon (McNaughton 2008, p. 303-305). The TV show known as Tassal pure Tasmanian salmon was this leading communication tool for Tassal Company. Huon aquaculture on the other side uses avenue such as public offer day as part of company public relation and campaign. During open public offer day the company also takes opportunity to convince customers on Huon as customers preference source of fish (Driesener et al 2004, pp 70-80). Place The main distribution channel for Tassal that begins from the hatchery facility fitted with modern technology at Rookwood Road Hatchery. It is estimated that the hatchery produces more than 10 million molts per year that are then taken to the sea. Tassal has 6 marine units that are used to hold approximately 120 tones of salmon at harvest. After harvest some Tassal fish are taken to processing facility where smoked salmon are processed in value addition stage. The three salmon producing companies are located in Tasmania in Australia. According to Enright (2002, p. 454-55), the three main competing salmon producers have closer distribution channels. Tassal leads fish producing farms supply of salmon and salmon products in retails and wholesalers across Australia and international market. Competitive advantage of Tassal Tassal has three main areas of focus to be competitive in the domestic and global market. The three main areas of focus include sustainability, increase per capita consumption and building brand strength. Firstly, as a key player in the food, fish and sustainable management practices, Tassal focus on building sustainable production, processing and operation that focuses on sustainable management. Secondly, the main marketing strategy of Tassal is to increase per capita consumption of salmon fish. According to Belch and Powell (2009, p.126), to achieve growth strategy most of emphasis is on the domestic market as oppose to export that has low prices. This domestic market strategy is also used by Huon Aquaculture the main competitor of Tassal. Finally, building brand strength is also strategy used by Tassal that is only limited to the company. Tassal has embarks on building new brands and promoting the existing brands. This is to increase customer preference and reduce company weakness es such as high mortality rate of livestock (Roddy 2010, pg 30). Recommendations for improved marketing mix Over the past few years Tassal has been greatly challenged by its main competitor Huon Aquaculture. This indicates that the marketing strategies used by Tassal need some improvement. One of the key areas to be considered for improvement is product promotion and pricing. As part of marketing mix setting products price, Tassal need to consider product demand since its prices are criticized by consumers setting stage for its competitors to be preferred by customers (Lehu 2007, p. 20). Secondly, according to marketing director for Tassal, some of Tassals products have reduced price offer to attract more customers. The remaining product promotion strategy that Tassal need to improve on is the product promotion gifts. This strategy will help build product strength in the market and draw more customers for its products (Dainora 2010, p. 170). Conclusion In conclusion, Tassal remains sustainable business organization in Tasmania, Australia and beyond in production, processing and supply of salmon fish products. The sustainability management practices and marketing strategy that Tassal uses making it continuously produce fish, process, and supply and add value to salmon fish as compared to its main competitors Petuna Seafood and Huon Aquaculture. Supply and distribution of salmon fish products are aided by state of the art technological infrastructure that Tassal uses. Tassal own large fish hatchery and processing facility that produces fish throughout the year in addition to its sustainable management. References Belch, G, Powell, I, 2009, Advertising and Promotion Management: An Integrated Marketing Communication Perspective, McGraw-Hill, Sydney, Australia, p.126 Belch, G, Belch, MA, 2012, Advertising and promotion: AN integrated marketing communication perspective (9th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw- Hill Irwin, pp 147- 158 Belch, G, Belch, M, 2004, Advertising and Promotion: an integrated marketing communications perspective. MacGraw-Hill/Irwin. Pp 34 Charles L, et al, 2011, Essentials of Marketing: Discuss the elements of the promotional mix. Cengage Learning, Retrieved Aug. 26, 2014, pp 514 Dainora, G, 2010, The Marketing Philosophy and Challenges for the New Millennium, Scientific Bulletin Economic Sciences: Marketing, Commerce and Tourism, Vol. 9, no. 15, p. 170 Driesener, C., Paech, S., Romaniuk, J, Sharp, B, 2004, Brand and Advertising Awareness: A Replication and extension of a known empirical generalization, Australasian Marketing Journal, vol. 12, no. 3, pp 70-80 Egan, J, 2011, Marketing Communications, London, Thomson Learning, pp 42-43 Enright, M, 2002, Marketing and Conflicting Dates for its Emergence: Hotchkiss, Bartels, the Fifties School and Alternative Accounts," Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. 18, p. 454-55 Harrell, GD, 2008, Marketing: Connecting with Customers. Chicago Education Press. p.286. Heath, R, Brandt, D, Nairn, A, 2006, Brand relationships: Strengthen by emotion, weakened by attention. Journal of Advertising Research, vol. 46, no 4, pp 410-419. Hosany, S, Lee, W, 2013, Theory and Strategies of Anthropomorphic Brand Characters from Peter Rabbit, Mickey Mouse, and Ronald McDonald, to Hello Kitty. Journal of Marketing Management, vol. 29, no 1/2, pp 48-68 Hutter, K, Hoffmann, S, 2011, Guerrilla marketing: The nature of the concept and propositions for further research. Asian Journal of Marketing, vol. 5, no 2, pp. 39-54. Jones, GB Monieson, DD, 2001, Early Development of the Philosophy of Marketing Thought, In Marketing: Critical Perspectives on Business and Management, Vol. 2, Michael John Baker (ed), London, Routledge, p.92 Lehu, J-M, 2007, Branded Entertainment: Product Placement Brand Strategy in the Entertainment Business, Kogan. Page, p. 20 Manternach, L, 2011, Does your brand have top of mind awareness? Corridor Business Journal, vol. 7, no 52, p. 26 McNaughton, M, 2008, Guerrilla Communication, Visual Consumption, and Consumer Public Relations. Public Relations Review, 34, no 1, p. 303-305. O'Malley, L, Lichrou, M, 2016, Marketing Theory, in Baker, MJ, Hart, S, The Marketing Book, 7th ed., Routledge, Oxon, UK, pp 37-52 Roddy, M, 2010, Sales Promotion: How to Create, Implement and Integrate Campaigns that Really Work, Kogan Page Publishers, pg 30 Reinhardt, L, Forest. 2007, Bringing the Environment Down to Earth: Harvard Business Review on Green Business Strategy (41-64). United States of America: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation. Pp. 45 Ritchie, M, 2002, Be a Local Hero: Strengthening Our Communities, Health, and Environment by Eating Local. Juliet B. Schor Betsy Taylor, Sustainable Planet: Solutions for the Twenty-first Century (93-108). Boston, Massachusetts: Beacon Press. Vol. 2, pp 56 Rossiter, J Bellman, S, 2005, Marketing Communications: Theory and Applications, Pearson Australia, pp 157-160 Schmidt, S, Eisend, M, 2015, Advertising Repetition: A Meta-Analysis on Effective Frequency in Advertising. Journal of Advertising, vol.44, no 4, pp 415-428. 2%) Tassal Group, Ltd

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Tim Burton Cinematic Techniques free essay sample

Tim Burton is a successful film maker and has inspired many to get into the movie making business due to his cinematic techniques. In many of his films, Tim Burton uses lighting successfully to show happiness or sadness. He is known for having very low key beginning credits. Low key lighting can be used to show a sad, mysterious or scary environment. For example, the beginning credits of the movies Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and Edward Scissorhands are very dark cloudy scenes. They both have a solid black background and obscure objects appearing. Also, Burton used lighting perfectly in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory when the lucky children who obtain the golden tickets enter the huge room where the chocolate was made. It is a bright and colorful room filled with tasty goods. High key lighting is used to create a happy, exciting, or fun atmosphere. The lighting on the kids faces as they walk in the factory was very high key because they were bright and full of joy. We will write a custom essay sample on Tim Burton Cinematic Techniques or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Burton also uses a high key effect on the town in Edward Scissorhands; it is filled with brightly painted houses with beautifully cut bushes. Also the clothes that people wear in Edward Scissorhands are very brightly colored because people would wear a single colored outfit of much color. As a result, lighting is used effectively throughout his movies to show different effects. Camera angles were very important in the films Edward Scissorhands and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. In the movie, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory the scene of Willy Wonka walking in the jungle is a great example of camera angles. As the big bug zeroes in on Wonka, a low angle camera is used to show the bug is big and strong. Then, it cut to Wonka with a high angle shot showing he is helpless and small. After Wonka successfully kills the bug, it gives him a low angle shot showing he is the victor and that he is more powerful. In Edward Scissorhands, low angle shots are used many times while Edward is cutting things. For example, while Edward is constructing his first ice sculpture in Kims lawn the camera is low angle and makes him look very powerful while he sculpts the big angel. It makes him seem as if he is on top of the world and can do anything. There are also low angle shots while he cuts all of the housewives hair. There is a very effective long shot in the beginning of the movie while Peg strolls into Edwards house, when she finally gets into Edwards room there is a long shot which shows how big the house actually is by making Peg look very short due to the height of the ceiling. As a result, Tim Burton uses low angle, high angle, and long shots to represent strength, weakness, and to show a large scene and many things occurring at once. Tim Burton is a very skilled film maker who uses many cinematic techniques to make his movies enjoyable to watch. He efficiently uses lighting and camera angles in two of his major pieces, Edward Scissorhands and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory. He uses these two techniques very well and a handful of others that make his movies very well known and watched by many people. In conclusion, Tim Burton is able to use cinematic techniques an important part of his movies by using lighting and camera angles.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Explain how the body obtains energy from fat, carbohydrates and proteins The WritePass Journal

Explain how the body obtains energy from fat, carbohydrates and proteins Introduction Explain how the body obtains energy from fat, carbohydrates and proteins Introduction Nutrients to Energy- Three Main Stages ConclusionRelated Introduction All living things requires energy to stay warm (mammals in this case) and to carry out other life process i.e. maintenance, growth, movement, daily activities etc. All of the dietary energy in humans is obtained from the main food sources including carbohydrates, fat and proteins. These major food types are also known as macronutrients and each has its own energy content that provides energy by breaking their chemical bond energy in food molecules. Sugars and fat generate higher energy levels than proteins in non photosynthetic organisms. Fat provide far more energy per gram than carbohydrate or protein for example carbohydrate and protein provides 16.8 KJ/g whereas fat provides 37.8 kJ of energy per gram. Metabolism a set of chemical reaction plays an important role in providing energy that helps an organism to maintain life. Metabolic process is organised in different pathways that leads a chemical reaction to another through the help of enzymes and coenzymes. The breakdown of food molecules leads to a process known as oxidative phosphorylation that occurs in mitochondria. This process is essential for providing Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a primary source of energy for cellular activities. As the metabolic pathway is organised in to different stages, each stage should be explored in details to understand the process. Hence these stages will be explored later in the essay to answer the essay question in full. Nutrients to Energy- Three Main Stages The macronutrients presented in our food are the main source of energy for our body and all three nutrients must be broken down into smaller molecules before the cells can utilize them to produce energy. The breakdown of the larger molecules and oxidisation of those molecules are known as catabolism. The breakdown happens in digestion system where the breakdown is relatively similar for each nutrient. Specialised enzymes, a catalyst, digest specific polymers into monomers, for instant protease are specialised to catabolise proteins into amino acid and glycoside hydrolases turn polysaccharides into monosaccharides and fats are hydrolysed into fatty acids and glycerol by lipase. Oxidation of these molecules occurs once the small subunits are filtered into the cytosol of a cell through an active transport protein. Glycolysis reaction, which happens under anaerobic conditions, is a metabolic pathway that takes place inside all living cells. Glycolysis breaks sugar molecules glucose, a 6 carbon atom, and fructose into two pyruvate molecules, that contains 3 carbon atoms in each molecule. A difference exists during the combustion of carbohydrate molecule that can occur anaerobically while this is not true for the other two macronutrients. The transformation of glucose into pyruvate happens in 10 different stages. Each stage has a different enzyme to catalyse 10 different sugar molecules. In the first 5 stages, called preparatory phase, two molecules of ATP per each glucose molecule are used to provide energy to drive the reaction. At the start of last five stages known as pay off phase 2 NAD+ and GAPDH enzyme turn the NAD+ into a NADH molecule by pulling off a hydrogen molecule from GAPDH, two H+ are also produced at this stage. At the end of the stages two NADH are given and four ATP molecules are given from ADP plus P1. The resulted pyruvate proceeds to mitochondria from cytosol to lose two carbon dioxide molecules and change to two carbon acetyl group that joins with coenzyme A to produce acetyl CoA before it enters the citric acid cycle. Triglycerides, main form of fat, are oxidised in order to break them into smaller units such as fatty acid and glycerol inside the cytoplasm. Fatty acids are activated in cytoplasm before they enter cytosol, a same medium for glucose to citric acid. The activation must be done before the oxidation of fatty acid begins. During the activation, fatty acids change to fatty acyl CoA and ATP turns into AMP. Glycerol is transmitted to the glycolysis while the fatty acids are oxidised through beta-oxidation inside the mitochondria. There are four main enzymes located in mitochondria, therefore a series of four stages occur that convert acyl CoA to acetyl CoA. Two molecules of carbon from an acyl CoA is shortened at each stage to create a molecule of acetyl CoA and a molecule of NADH and FADH2. The resulted acetyl CoA is passed to the citric acid cycle and NADH plus FADH is entered into the electron transport chain. Proteins consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Although carbohydrates and proteins hold a similar structure but there is still a difference among their structure. Carbohydrates are made out of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen while protein has an addition of nitrogen and sulfur. Nitrogen is responsible for the creation of essential amino acids. There are all together 20 essential amino acids that build all body cells in animals. Body cell metabolise amino acids into fats or glycogen if excessive proteins are consumed in human diet. The breakdown of proteins to amino acids through digestion opens the path to energy metabolism of proteins. If amino acids are used to generate energy it must be done through deamination process where amino acids are broken into their constituent parts. Vitamin B6 associate with its enzyme in transamination cause nitrogen to transfer to a kito acid causing amino acid to lose its nitrogen and amino group. Ammonia is synthesised when amino acid in transformed to L glutamate through transamination process. Ammonia produces urea that travels through the blood to the kidney and excreted in urine. Now that urea is removed from the process the carbon skeleton of amino acids can be used in different ways i.e. for protein synthesis or ATP formation. Carbon skeleton can also be stored, mainly in livers, as glucose by gluconeogenesis. This starts by converting carbon skeleton into acetyl CoA so that the coenzyme can be transmitted to the citric acid cycle where acetyl CoA is oxidised to generate ATP. Gluconeogenesis (a metabolic pathway) aims to form glucose from using non carbohydrate carbon substrate including glycerol, glycogenic amino acid. The resulted glucose can be converted to glucose 6 phosphates from phosphoenolpyruvate. The end product is pyruvate; notice the end product of glucose in glycolysis is same. The process requires energy in order to provide energy during starvation in fasting or extreme exercise. Citric acid cycle (also known as Kerb’s cycle) is a chain of eight reaction taking place in mitochondria. It is true for each macronutrient to go through this chain of cycle and the oxidation on all of the acetyl CoA carbons entered from different nutrients is similar. This is an important stage as most of the energy produced in mitochondria happens after this cycle is completed to produce molecule carrying electrons. The carbon present in acetyl CoA is fully oxidised to a COÂ ­2 molecule during this reaction. Acetyl CoA filters its two carbon molecules to critic acid cycle and a reaction between acetyl and oxaloacetate produce citrate in the first chain of the cycle. Activated carrier molecules are generated from the oxidation of citrate molecules. Every cycle generates 3 NADH molecules, 1 GTP molecule and 1 FADH2 molecule. Two molecules of COÂ ­2 are given off as waste. The NADH and FADH2 molecules carry hydrogen and electrons which then proceeds to an oxidative phosphoryl ation process. The oxidative phosphorylation provides most of the energy in the whole system. The cycle does not require oxygen to carry out the process but the oxidisation of pyruvate requires oxygen. Hence the cycle works under the aerobic condition. The next and final step occurs along an electron transport chain in the mitochondrion inner membrane. The electron transport chain structure in four different proteins consists of five complexes. The high energy electrons from reduced electron carriers, NADH and FADH2, are bombarded to the electron transport chain where the electron moves from an electron donor to a terminal electron acceptor. These electrons are added to the NADH and FADH2 molecules in the citric acid cycle. The electrons from NADH enters complex I where it’s oxidised back to NAD+. Therefore one electron is captured and joins a proton to form a Hydrogen atom and one electron is lost during NADH losses its hydrogen. The electron from the hydrogen carries onto next stage while the proton moves back the inner membrane after the production of FMN to FMNH2. The electron in last complex embeds to the molecules of O2 gas and combines to two H+ to produce water H2O. While the electrons travel through these four complexes and provides enough energy to pump H+ ions (protons) outside the inner membrane. The concentration gradient of H+ is gained due to the movement of these protons. This gradient stores energy that is sufficient for the production of ATP by phosphorylation of ADP. This process is known as oxidative phosphorylation where the electron is in its lowest form of energy therefore all the energy from the food molecules are oxidised to synthesis enormous amount of ATP. There are approximately 30 molecules of ATP gained after the complete oxidation per molecule of glucose or fatty acids or amino acids to H2O and CO2. Complete combustion of proteins also produces NH3 as waste products. Conclusion As the essay reaches its conclusion we can suggest that these macronutrients follow a similar pathway to generate ATP. Although the means of getting to the citric acid cycle for each macronutrient is different i.e. fat must be activated before it enters cytosol whereas protein goes through deamination process, not true for either glucose or fat. Also the function of glucose and protein is quiet different glucose only provide energy to the cells but proteins can participate in protein synthesis to formation of enzymes and carry important materials through the body etc. Molecular Biology of the Cell 4th edition, Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. New York: Garland Science; 2002.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The Nature of Reconstruction in African American History Essay

The Nature of Reconstruction in African American History - Essay Example   African Americans participated in huge numbers in the war as soldiers either enslaved by the confederate rulers or as loyalists to the Northern states due to their denouncement of slavery. The northern states, known as the Union, won the war in 1865 with the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee at McLean House Virginia. With the victory of North, and their policy of emancipation was universally implemented in the entire country. This along with other political and social measures taken in the aftermath of the civil war for reconstruction of the war struck areas and to ensure the integration of freedmen in the society are collectively referred to as reconstruction. As mentioned earlier, the reconstruction refers to the steps taken by the federal government to counter the effects of Civil War, specifically on the former Confederate States and on the freedmen. There were various objectives of the reconstruction initiated by the then President Abraham Lincoln and the Republ ican Congress in 1863. An administrative and political structure had to be re-established in the southern states which lost the war. Moreover, their incorporation in the Union itself, and the congress was also to be carried out in the long term. Moreover, even after the war ended, there was a huge following of the ex-Confederate leaders in the nationalist white men of the southern states (Horton, 2005). The status of the Confederate leadership had to be decided in order to avoid any conflict or chaos. Another, rather more serious, issue was to decide the social, economic and political rights of the freedmen under the constitution. Most important of them was the question that whether or not the freedmen should be given the right to vote. Hence, the reconstruction can be thought of as political, social, economic, legal and administrative restructuring of the southern states by the President and the Congress. There were two different approaches followed by the Union politicians during the Reconstruction era. The office of the president, under Abraham Lincoln, and after his death by Andrew Johnson, resorted mostly to administrative measures to avoid conflict, and contain the chaos caused by southern nationalists over the above-mentioned issues. The policy of both presidents was very lenient towards the southern states and ex-Confederate politicians. They wanted the Reunion of Southern States with the federal government as early as possible. Starting from 1862, military governors were appointed in ten out of eleven states which exercised administrative and legal powers. At that time, it was decided that these governors would give way to a political set up when at least ten percent of the white men in a state vowed allegiance to the Union and also accept the declaration of emancipation (the Ten Percent Plan). The states were then allowed to elect their own governor and legislative assembly and write a new constitution embodying concepts of emancipation and federatio n. These measures proved to be very effective in the immediate control of the riots, which had broken in the southern states.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Employee Portfolio Motivational Plan Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Employee Portfolio Motivational Plan - Assignment Example As a matter of fact, he is on the brink of being the ideal employee; he just needs that aspect of motivation. Since Timothy has different needs that are independent of each other but all need to be satisfied, the motivation theory that best explains his situation is Alderfer’s ERG theory. For example, although he prefers to work alone, he aspires to be in a leadership position. At the same time, although he is socially inclined, he is not empathetic. Elza needs attention, emotional support, and better working conditions. She is a very emotional person who tends to get frustrated quickly. This could explain why she has problems with her boss and her juniors. Elza needs to feel valued, understood, and trusted. Her superiors should seriously consider her emotional needs and work conditions in order to bring the best out of her because these appear to be her main areas of concern. The theory that best explains Elza’s situation is Herzberg’s two-factor theory, which identifies motivators and hygiene as the two aspects that cause workplace satisfaction or dissatisfaction. While Elza is committed to her work and exhibits professionalism, her working conditions (hygiene factors) are suppressing her enthusiasm for work. Based on Herzberg’s theory, Elza’s situation embodies low hygiene and high motivation combination (Pinder, 2014). She can perform much better if she is provided with ideal working conditions an d more emotional support. Elza also exhibits certain aspects of McClelland’s motivation theory, specifically the achievement dimension. She wants to excel, prefers to work alone, and is extremely driven to accomplish tasks. Emerick has all the qualities of any organization’s ideal employee. However, he also has some weaknesses that need to be eliminated, although they are not so worrying as to affect his overall performance. This employee needs to be given more indoctrination in the

Monday, November 18, 2019

Corporate Finance Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Corporate Finance - Essay Example In addition, environmental factors like macro economic conditions and cyclical behaviour of the industry may influence on their performance. The hubris hypotheses formulated by Roll, states that often company managers systematically commit error in evaluating merger opportunities which are due to their excessive self-confidence. So, managerial motives play important role in determining the outcome of the merger and acquisition. In contrast, in some instances even when shareholder wealth is destroyed, executives still seem to gain from mergers and acquisitions, which show that, managers through mergers and acquisition activities may seek to utilise their own utility at the expense of shareholders (Casper Flugt, 2009). Main objectives of merger Companies go for merger and acquisitions to expand their business. By the process they try to develop their companies’ brands. Aim to reduce market competition. Aim to cutting costs by laying off employees, removing management and other r elated actions. To reduce taxes they go for merger. Aim for ‘empire building’ by acquiring managers and other purposes, they may go for acquisition. It is a strategic move by companies to diversify their business away from their resources. Company managers think that joint company will be able to generate more value than the separate firms. There are many options for payment for a company when it goes for acquiring another firm. It can pay in fully cash, or it may buy targeted shares. It can also choose a combination of loan notes, share and equity, deferred payment. Actually, the payment method is important for several reasons. Payment by means of cash and debt will benefit more for a company than stock acquisitions, as it could be used more efficiently... At the time of stock market boom, mergers were more appealing. On the other hand, falling share prices can lead to a company being undervalued, and make it an attractive for acquisition. Mergers and acquisitions can either be value destroyers or value creators that depend on factors like company’s cost of capital, its strategies and decisions and cash flows generated from the business operations The performance is not related to the nature of an industry, instead it was driven by the quality and strategy of management. Good strategy by management can produce good results, on the other hand, poor decision and strategies may end with poor performance. In the present competitive market companies are looking for mergers and acquisitions to expand their business to a newer region. Most of the mergers and acquisitions resulted in value creation. Especially, in case of big companies it is true. There is some perception that nearly 50-70% of mergers fail to deliver shareholder value. In many occasions employees feel the pinch as the new group goes to cut jobs to reduce cost to the company. But, ultimately performance is not related to the nature of an industry, instead it was driven by the quality and strategy of management. Sound financial management along with other favourable factors is necessary for value creation, its survival and growth for any company.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Web Personalization Using Feedforward Backpropagation

Web Personalization Using Feedforward Backpropagation WEB PERSONALIZATION USING FEEDFORWARD BACKPROPAGATION NEURAL NETWORK Chapter 4: Methodology Chapter 4 shows the methodology of the present work. Section 4.1 present the methodology, section 4.2 includes flow chart of the present work. Section 4.3 present the proposed algorithm. 1.1 METHODOLOGY Start Configure search engine Training on data according to user’s context. Testing on data ANN optimization for search optimization. Stop 1.1 Training: Data is trained using Feedforward Backpropagation Neural network. Before testing and searching the data is trained. Data training is required for optimal results. Testing: Testing of data is performed using Feedforward Backpropagation neural network and Using SVM (Support Vector Machine). User Query: User can enter the Query for find the information. Some Web sites name are suggested to the users according the query of user. 1.2 FLOWCHART The simple flowchart of the designed algorithm is depicted in the figure 4.2 Figure 4.2: flowchart of the designed algorithm 1.3 ALGORITHM DESIGN The Algorithm for the present work is discussed in this section. The various steps used in algorithm are explained. The pseudo Code for the algorithm is also discussed in this section. Table4.1 Proposed Algorithm Pseudo code of proposed algorithm:-The Pseudo code for proposed algorithm is shown below. Table 4.2 proposed algorithm in pseudo code Chapter-5 RESULT AND PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS In this chapter results of the present is explained. The figures of result, comparison, comparison tables and graphs of the present work are shown in this chapter. 1.1 TOOLS USED To implement my work I used Matlab. Matlab Stands for MATrix LABoratory. MATLAB has a modern programming language environment: it has refined data structures, contains built-in editing and debugging tools, and supports object-oriented programming. Table 5.1: Tools Used MATLAB The name MATLAB stands for MATrix LABoratory. MATLAB was written originally to provide easy access to matrix software developed by the LINPACK (linear system package) and EISPACK (Eigen system package) projects MATLAB is a high-performance language for technical computing. It integrates computation, visualization, and programming environment. Furthermore, MATLAB is a modern programming language environment: it has refined data structures, contains built-in editing and debugging tools, and supports object-oriented programming. These factors make MATLAB an outstanding tool for education and research. MATLAB has many advantages compared to conventional computer languages (e.g., C, FORTRAN) for solving technical problems. MATLAB is an interactive system whose basic data element is an array that does not require dimensioning. The software package has been commercially available since 1984 and is now considered as a standard tool at most universities and industries worldwide. It has powerf ul built-in routines that enable a very wide variety of computations. It also has easy to use graphics commands that make the visualization of results immediately available. Specification applications are collected in packages referred to as toolbox. There are toolboxes for signal processing, symbolic computation, control theory, simulation, and optimization. After logging into your account, you can enter MATLAB by double-clicking on the MATLAB shortcut icon (MATLAB 7.0.4) on your Windows desktop. When you start MATLAB, a special window called the MATLAB desktop appears. The desktop is a window that contains other windows. The major tools within or accessible from the desktop are: The Command Window The Command History Workspace The Current directory Help browser Start button 5.1.1 MATLAB CHARACTERISTICS Developed first and foremost by Cleve Molar in the 1970s Derived from FORTRAN subroutines LINPACK and EISPACK, linear and Eigen value systems. Developed principally as an interactive system to access LINPACK and EISPACK. Gained its esteem through word of mouth, because it was not authoritatively dispersed. Rewritten in C in the 1980s with more functionality, which include plotting routines. The Math Works Inc. was produced (1984) to marketplace and go on with expansion Of MATLAB. 5.1.2 ADVANTAGES OF MATLAB MATLAB may behave as a calculator or as a programming language MATLAB combine adequately calculation and graphic plotting. MATLAB is moderately easy to learn MATLAB is interpreted (not compiled), errors are easy to fix. MATLAB is optimized to be relatively fast when performing matrix operations MATLAB does have some object-oriented elements 5.1.3 RESULTS In this section Screen Shots of the present work are shown. Firstly, Data Set is uploaded after that Neural Network and SVM are used for training and testing of the data. User can create their account and if user has already account then he can sign in for the Personalization. Three parameters are taken for the comparison between the SVM (support vector machine) and Neural Network. Accuracy, Precision and Recall are the three parameters used for the comparison. Neural Network gives the best results. Figure 5.1: Proposed Flowchart Fig. 5.1 shows the main working window of the personalization. The above figure has all the training and testing window components in w +hich the personalized data can be trained through the Neural Network and Support Vector Machine. Training Model for SVM as well as Neural Network. Inputs: examples, a set of examples, each with input x = x1; x2; : : : ; xn and output y Inputs: network, a perceptron with weights Wj ; j = 0; : : : ; n and activation function g Repeat for each e in examples do inPnj = 0Wj xj [e] Err y[e] g(in) WjWj + _ _ Err _ g0(in) _ xj [e] End Until all examples correctly predicted or stopping criterion is reached Return network Figure 5.2: represents the architecture of the Neural Network Neural network contains of input and hidden layers. Each and every layer has weight and bandwidth of the data. Hidden Layer contains epochs that means iteration. The maximum iteration provided over here is 50 but it is not necessary that the neural will run till 50. It would cross check the validations and would provide the results required. The results can also be checked by the following graphs. Figure 5.3: Representing detailed neural architecture The above figure represents the architecture over which the neural has been tested and trained. There is one validation denoted by the pink line and has been achieved on the 4th Iteration. Figure 5.4: Personalizing Option The above figure provides the option to personalize the system according to the choice of the user. Here the user can banned those website link which he or she does not want to see in the future. Figure 5.5: Login window Figure 5.5 shows the login window. If the user is new or not registered then he can use sign up option for registration. After filling details, user is registered. Useris alreadyregisteredhe can log in using theUserID and Password. Figure 5.6: Results after testing data The above figure represents results after testing the data. User can test data after fill the data in the box. Figure 5.7. Different parameters The above figure shows the different parameter after click on result neural button. Accuracy, Precision, and recall parameters can be calculated. The same parameter can be calculated by SVM also. 5.2Comparison Tables and Graphical Representation The experiment was conducted for computing Accuracy, Precision and Recall. The experiment has been performed to compare the performance of both Neural Network and SVM (Support Vector Machine). The Accuracy, Precision and Recall for both approaches was different. Given tables and graphs proves the performance of the algorithms. Table 5.2: Accuracy Comparison Figure 5.8: Graph of accuracy comparison Table 5.3: Precision Comparison Figure 5.9: graph of Precision Comparison Table5.4: Recall Comparison Figure 5.10: Graph of Recall Comparison Chapter 6: CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE Chapter 6 includes conclusion and future scope of the present work. Future scope means that what enhancement can be done in the future. Section 6.1 covers the Conclusion and Section 6.2 covers the Future scope. 6.1 CONCLUSION Web personalization is an answer for data over-burden issue on World Wide Web .The web personalization assemble the accuracy of web hunt apparatus, streamlines the looking process and reduce the time customer needs to spend for looking for. Today for both Web-based affiliations and for the end customers the web personalization has transformed into a key gadget. Web utilization mining is the methodology of recognizing delegate patterns and scanning examples depicting the movement in the site, by investigating the clients conduct. Site directors can then use this information to redesign or change the site according to the side interests and behaviour of its visitors, or upgrade the execution of their systems. Also, the supervisors of e-trade destinations can procure profitable business brainpower, making buyer profiles and accomplishing business sector division. There exists number of techniques yet none has been accomplished great amount. This postulation introduced a methodology taking into account neural system for web personalization of web substance. Firstly, in the pre-processing stage the information must be gathered from the better places it is put away (customer side, server side, and intermediary servers). In the wake of recognizing the customers, the snap surges of each customer must be part into sessions. The last venture of the entire web utilization mining methodology is to dissect the examples found amid the example disclosure step. Web Usage Mining attempt to comprehend the examples identified in before step. The most well-known systems is information visualization applying channels High dimensional information stream contains a huge colossal measure of information. Such huge sum information contains a vast information with high measurements with information many-sided quality. A valid example remote sensor framework data, web logs, Google look for, et cetera. Standard strategies are not suitable over h igh dimensional data as they obliged high figuring expense for taking care of data that is the reason this technique has been realized with some change highlights. 6.2 FUTURE SCOPE Future misleads examine the half breed utilization structure positioning that can be connected to a bound together web/navigational diagram which extends out of the breaking points of a solitary site. Such approach would empower a worldwide significance positioning over the web, improving both web query items and the suggestion process. Now, if the user wants to revisit URL P3, she would not be able to do that using just the BackButton navigation Stack. If she resorts to the history list to get some help, she will be disappointed to see that its list based textual representation gives no idea about the structure of the navigation pattern. Moreover, even for a modestly sized navigation session, the history list gets cluttered to an extent so that renders it ineffective in searching for a specific page. The bookmark facility is of little help in this case, as the user cannot bookmark each and every page due to overhead associated with the very process of bookmarking. Moreover, even selected bookmarking is of no help as, in most cases, the user does not know at the time of visiting a web page whether it is important enough to be bookmarked. One thing that has long been acknowledged by the research community is the use of graphical overview diagrams in assisting user navigation through complex information spaces. The visualization scheme employed should be efficient enough to give a graphical representation of user session history in real time. Computationally and graphically intensive application may cause undue delays in the visualization generation process, especially when the session history grows large. Most of the past work done for WWW subspace visualization is plagued by these delays therefore is inefficient for the ordinary use. The solution must be designed keeping in mind that it has to replace WWW browser stack based navigation structure and its history list. Therefore it must provide all those facilities that were provided by these browser components. Users who are familiar with the facilities provided by the browser may find it very difficult to adjust to a new scheme that does not provide these facilities. The visualization scheme should be designed more on an aesthetic rather than a scientific basis. Humans tend to get confused when presented with a large amount of data jumbled up in front of them. It is, therefore, highly recommended that session history data be divided into small and easily manageable groups, neatly knitted together through an elegant link structure. 1

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Mussolini and Hitler Essay -- essays research papers

Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler As World War II (WWII) approached, Mussolini announced his intention of annexing Malta, Corsica, and Tunis. He spoke of creating a "New Roman Empire" that would stretch east to Palestine and south through Libya and Egypt to Kenya. In April 1939, after a brief war, he annexed Albania, a campaign which strained his military. His armed forces are generally considered to have been unprepared for combat when the German invasion of Poland led to World War II. Mussolini thus decided to remain 'non-belligerent' until he was quite certain which side would win. On June 10, 1940, as the Germans under General Guderian reached the English Channel, Mussolini declared war on Britain and France. In October, Italy attacked Greece and lost in result 1/3 of Albania, until Germany attacked Greece as well. In June 1941, he declared war on the Soviet Union and in December he declared war on the United States. Following Italian defeats on all fronts and the Anglo-American landing in Sicily in 1943, most of Mussolini's colleagues (Count Galeazzo Ciano, the foreign minister and also Mussolini's son-in-law, included) turned against him at a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council on July 25, 1943. King Vittorio Emanuele III called Mussolini to his palace and stripped the dictator of his power. Upon leaving the palace, Mussolini was swiftly arrested. He was then sent to Gran Sasso, a mountain recovery in central Italy (Abruzzo), in complete isolation. Mussolini was subst...

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Helen of Troy allusion from Romeo and Juliet Essay

Allusion location: Act 2, Scene 4, line 107 Quote: â€Å"Helen and Hero were sluts and harlots.† Plot context: Romeo has just arranged for Juliet and his marriage and is walking home when Mercutio spots him. Mercutio makes jokes about how his girl is so beautiful that she makes the most beautiful women in history look ugly. Mercutio also mentions that Romeo gave them the slip the previous night. Romeo replies and asked what they meant and Mercutio starts making sexual jokes about what Romeo was doing the previous night. Romeo responds to Mercutios jokes humorously and continues to joke with Mercutio. Research: Helen of Troy is sometimes referred to the face that launched a thousand ships. Helen of Troy was said to be the daughter of Zeus and was kidnapped by Theseus, king of Athens, and Pirithous, king of Larissa because they wanted to make love with the daughter of Zeus before they died. When Helen was older she had thousands of suitors. To pick the suitor Helens father made the suitors all sweat to protect Helen and whoever her husband should be and then created a competition which Menelaus won. When Menelaus took Helen back to Pleistheines and they lived happily for about a year before Paris, the prince of Troy, came to Pleistheines and fell in love with Helen. When Menelaus left to go to a funeral in Crete, Paris and Helen fled for Troy with some of Menelaus’s wealth. When Pleistheines returned and found out what had happened he called for all of Helens old suitors to keep their promise and help him bring back Helen. Analysis: The reference to Helen of Troy has often been used to compare a beautiful woman to Helen of Troy to say that they are beautiful. The allusion to Helen of Troy is foreshadowing because Romeo and Paris both fight over Juliet just like Menelaus fought Paris over Helen.

Friday, November 8, 2019

Madness-Hamlet essays

Madness-Hamlet essays Webster defines being mad as disordered in intellect and insane, and in Hamlet the defining theme is that of madness. As the many layers of the tragedy of Prince Hamlet unfold, characters who are crazy, insane, furious, infatuated, and madly in love are introduced. Prince Hamlet, the main character of the play, responds: Seems, madam? Nay, it is. I know not seems. (1.2.79) to a simple comment his mother makes. Seems is not important to the conversation, yet he makes a point of stating that he does not know what the word seems means. Curious minds wonder: Does he know the meaning of seems, and play on it to confuse his mother, or is he truly gone so mad as to no longer know the meaning of an unmistakable five-letter word. He later says to himself: O, that this too, too sullied flesh would melt, thaw, and resolve itself into a dew, Hamlet is not wanting to die, but to change; he wants to become something simpler. He is perplexed at his own humanity and that of those cl ose to him. Hamlet does not get along well with Polonius, the father of his girlfriend, but Polonius sums up the madness in the play better than any other character in saying: More grief to hide than hate to utter love. (2.1.133) Polonius is discussing suppressed emotions and masking ones true feelings. In the end, those who needed forgiveness find it in each other where they had least expected to find it. There are many parts of the play where I believe he must be mad, but I understand what drove him to lunacy: His fathers death, a murder by his uncle, the marriage of his mother and his fathers killer, his true love being driven away from him, his being disallowed to return to the one place that he is happy: school. On a final note, I believe that the only two truly sane characters, Hamlet and Ophelia, are driven to insanity by those surrounding them...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Looking At The Carer Prospects Of Foster Care Social Work Essay Essays

Looking At The Carer Prospects Of Foster Care Social Work Essay Essays Looking At The Carer Prospects Of Foster Care Social Work Essay Essay Looking At The Carer Prospects Of Foster Care Social Work Essay Essay This undertaking is based on a Foster attention appraisal of a prospective carer undertaken as a pupil societal worker. It gives an overview of my appraisal from allotment to cloture due to concerns. Although instantly allocated another more fruitful appraisal, I have chosen to look at this unsuccessful appraisal as I believe it taught me more as a pupil about my pattern. An bureau description is foremost provided to give the reader a image of the squad which should set my function into context. This is followed by the background and aims of my work. The chief text follows the natural patterned advance of my work from be aftering to rating. I will analyze my work placing the societal work subjects, issues and theories that guided my pattern. Reflection acknowledges that we are portion of what we are sing ( Schon, 1983 ) ; looking at our relationships with service users beneath the surface ( Payne, 2002 ) . I will therefore reflect throughout this undertaking, instead than strictly at the terminal, as this is what I of course did in my pattern. This will take to a brooding rating of my pattern and the deductions it had for both me and the service user. The bureau I was placed with was a statutory Foster attention squad within the local authorization s kids s services. Although the squad works more straight with surrogate carers it serves kids in demand between the ages of 0 and 16 and is hence classified as a Tier 4 service as shown below. Fostering services in this local authorization were originally integrated amongst other service user groups, regulated by the Boarding-Out Regulations ( 1955 ) . These ordinances caused ambiguity by promoting surrogate carers to handle surrogate kids as their ain ( Triseliotis et al. , 1995 ) . In the 1970 s, with the altering accent to the professionalization of fosterage, the squad bit by bit became a separate division. The 1955 ordinances were finally updated with the Boarding-out of Children ( Foster Placement ) Regulations ( 1988 ) which were later absorbed into the Children Act ( 1989 ) ordinances. Merely a few old ages subsequently the Foster Placement ( Children ) Regulations ( 1991 ) were introduced which changed the focal point of appraisal from families to single Foster parents. However, what both ordinances were missing was met in the constitution of the Fostering Services Regulations ( FCR ) ( 2002 ) and National Minimum Standards ( NMS ) ( Department of Health ( DoH ) , 2002 ) . These come under subdivisions 22 and 48 and 23 and 49 of the Care Standards Act ( 2000 ) severally. This changed the ordinance of the bureau from the local authorization itself to the National Care Standards Commission ( NCSC ) . The NCSC inspects how the bureau recruits, buttockss, supervises and trains surrogate carers. These four countries describe my function as a oversing societal worker within the squad. Background to the Case Monica is a 55 twelvemonth old female who had contacted the fosterage bureau with an involvement in going a surrogate carer. The procedure from public involvement to approved surrogate carer is complex and thorough. Each local Foster attention service will hold a similar but somewhat different process and the squad I was placed with used the procedure shown in figure 1. Initial Interest Initial Home Visit Application signifier sent and completed by Applicant Full Assessment by Social Worker taking to Fostering Panel Approved Foster Carer is allocated a Social Worker and begins furthering Figure 1: The Fostering Assessment Process When seeking to visualize the appraisal procedure for the reader, I felt a pyramid was the most appropriate. This is foremost because the broadness represents the greater personal investing a prospective carer must set into the fosterage procedure and secondly the deeper into their life a societal worker will and must travel. At each phase a prospective campaigner may hold a different societal worker. The initial place visit with Monica was conducted by another societal worker. The intent of this visit was to acquire a snap shooting of Monica s suitableness and motive to further. The societal workers study is so presented to senior staff with recommendations and a determination is made as to whether an application signifier should be sent. Once returned, the following measure is to travel through a procedure that combines elements of appraisal and readying ( McColgan, 1991 ) . This is where my engagement with Monica began. Aims of the Work As good as strong fond regards to household members, surrogate carers or residential attention workers are truly of import for kids in attention, as these are the people who have the most impact on their daily experiences ( DCSF, 2008, p.11 ) Foster carers are cardinal to many kids and immature people s experience of attention. It is indispensable that we value and back up them and guarantee that they are decently equipped with the necessary scope of accomplishments ( DfES, 2007, p.8-9 ) When measuring Monica I held the two statements above steadfastly in my head to utilize in times of uncertainness but besides clarity. It is good known that the enlisting and keeping of Foster carers has been systematically debatable for local governments ( Association of Directors of Social Services, 1997 ; Bebbington and Miles, 1990 ; Colton et al. 2008 ; Hill, 2000 ; NFCA, 1997 ) . Despite this, Quality Protects ( DoH, 1998 ) and the authorities s launch of Choice Protects in 2002 ( see ) continually try to raise the quality of furthering proviso to better arrangement pick and stableness. The green paper Every Child Matters ( DfES, 2003 ) and more late Care Matters ( DfES, 2007 ) argue that Foster attention services need carers with the accomplishments to look after vulnerable kids. In some states, such as Australia, the choice of Foster carers still has no empirical base beyond condemnable record cheques and suited adjustment ( Kennedy and Thorpe, 2006 ) . This was the past image in the UK, nevertheless the National Foster Care Association ( NFCA ) , now called The Fostering Network ( TFN ) introduced the Codes of Practice ( NFCA, 1999a ) and National Minimum Standards ( NFCA, 1999b ) for measuring surrogate carers. My appraisal of Monica would see her accomplishments, experience, values, cognition and overall suitableness to further kids for the local authorization. This was based on measuring her on four competences ( caring for kids ; supplying a safe and caring environment ; working as portion of a squad and ain development ) broken into 18 units ( Appendix A ) . More late the Children s Workforce Development Council ( CWDC ) has developed 7 criterions for surrogate carers ( 2007 ) ( Appendix B ) . The squad had merely begun utilizing these alongside the competences ( NFCA, 1999a, 1999b ) when I started Monica s appraisal. The criterions support a three phase preparation model for Foster attention ( pre-approval ; initiation and surrogate carer development ) . Pre-approval was my nonsubjective with Monica linked to subdivision 27 ( 1 ) of the FCR ( 2002 ) ( Appendix C ) , and other relevant statute law ( Appendix D ) . Although the FCR ( 2002 ) are the legislative force, it was the NMS ( DoH, 2002 ) under subdivision 17 which gave me a more elaborate apprehension of the countries ( caring ability, sexual boundaries, faith etc ) necessitating measuring with Monica ( Appendix E ) . Brown ( 1992 ) observes that a fosterage appraisal has two interrelated facets: ( a ) Evaluation of prospective carer s strengths and failings and ( B ) the appraisal of their capacity to larn, adapt and alteration. These aims are still relevant to measuring surrogate carers today. Whilst I was measuring Monica on the competences and CWDC criterions, there is no standardized manner of obtaining the grounds for these. I therefore felt I had a batch of discretion in my appraisal. I decided multiple cognition beginnings ( research, intuition and experience etc ) would steer my appraisal. Webb ( 2001 ) argues that Evidence Based Practice ( EBP ) can non work in societal work as the farewell of facts and values inherent in EBP undermines professional opinion and discretion. I disagreed and felt the usage of both grounds and my ain intuition was needed to obtain an accurate appraisal of Monica. For illustration, research states a demand for carers committed to developing after blessing ( H utchinson et al. , 2003 ) . However, I knew that merely because a carer agreed to developing after blessing that my intuition or pattern wisdom ( Stepney, 2000 ) may state me otherwise. Further, Sinclair s ( 2005 ) research underscoring the demand for betterments in surrogate carer choice, I felt, justified my usage of multiple cognition beginnings to make my aims with Monica. Planing for the Work When foremost allocated the appraisal of Monica, I was in the first hebdomad of my arrangement and true had small apprehension of what really made a good Foster carer beyond my ain common sense. This deficiency of cognition and apprehension left me experiencing out of my deepness and dying. I hence decided that before doing any contact with Monica I would garner all available information and utilize my bing cognition base to see how it fitted with the fostering appraisal. Brown ( 1992 ) suggests that when nearing a fostering appraisal we should inquire ourselves a scope of inquiries. The three I found myself inquiring were: what knowledge do I need ; is the assessment discriminatory or oppressive and what accomplishments and values do I need. Knowledge Gathering Appraisal is at the Centre of all good societal work pattern ( Bartlett, 1970 ; Milner and OByrne, 2002 ) and therefore my planning was important as failing to program is be aftering to neglect ( Trevithick, 2005, pg.140 ) . I wanted to utilize Monica s initial place visit study as my get downing point, as appraisals are seldom, if of all time, value free ( Rees, 1991 ) . Therefore before I understood any more about the fosterage procedure I wanted to place and look into any prejudice I may hold that could impact the appraisal undertaken ( Clifford, 1998 ) . However I was surprised by the studies deficiency of item and hence spoke to the societal worker who completed it. He could nt give me any extra information which frustrated me as the study, in my sentiment, failed to give the intended snapshot of Monica. This did nt assist alleviate my anxiousness, nevertheless reading the counsel Assessing surrogate carers: A societal workers guide to competency appraisals ( NFCA, 2000 ) increased my assurance of what I was expected to accomplish in my appraisal with Monica. Using this counsel coupled with the NMS ( DoH, 2002 ) and colleague information placed the appraisal of Monica in my head as undertaking centred pattern ( Doel, 1994, 2002 ; Reid and Epstein, 1972 ) . This was because the undertakings involved were non merely activities but held significance because of what they represented overall ( Coulshead and Orme, 2006 ) ; the fosterage of vulnerable kids. As fostering appraisals vary in length, typically between 4 months and a twelvemonth, I saw the appraisal as a uninterrupted procedure ( Hepworth et al. , 1997 ) . Therefore although my assessment visits would be based around specific undertakings and information assemblage, my appraisal of Monica would follow the ASPIRE theoretical acc ount ( Sutton, 1999 ) . This was because during my appraisal I would continually be after, step in, reappraisal and measure the appraisal with Monica. Oppression and Control From all available information beginnings, one issue rose within me. This was how intrusive the fostering appraisal appeared, and how for me, it epitomised the attention vs. control duality. Triseliotis et al. , ( 1995 ) believe that nowhere else are such inquiries asked with greater doggedness than in the appraisal of prospective Foster carers. They acknowledge that ways are being sought to do the procedure less intrusive and fairer to appliers. Although I saw the competences and criterions as one manner of accomplishing this with Monica, I still felt that I had a batch of power in her appraisal. Davis et al. , ( 1984 ) believe that the unequal power relationship between societal workers and appliers may advance the development of a relationship of dependance instead than the type of unfastened partnership required in furthering today. I viewed this unfastened partnership as being based on Monica s ego finding which to be met began with Monica voluntarily accepting my intercession ( Spicker, 1990 ) . My original thought was that subjugation merely applied to vulnerable groups. However, I knew I should avoid complacence as subjugation could go on to anybody, including Monica. In fact Monica had begun a Skills to Foster readying group and I had asked the facilitator of the group for some feedback. She described Monica as an interesting one noticing that she looked like she was approximately to drop dead. I discovered this judgement was based strictly on her usage of a walking assistance. Understating the impact of labelling ( Becker, 1963 ; Lemert, 1972 ) , I did nt desire this judgement to impact on me as I wanted to travel into Monica s appraisal with an anti-oppressive, non judgmental and accepting attitude ( Biestek, 1961 ) . Reflecting on my accomplishments and values Cardinal to our cognition base is the demand to cognize ourselves ( Dominelli, 2002 ; Crisp et al. , 2003 ) . Effective appraisal depends on the deployment of cardinal accomplishments such as Engagement ( Egan, 2002 ) , communicating, dialogue, determination devising ( Watson and West, 2006 ) and administrative accomplishments ( Coulshead and Orme, 2006 ) . I felt I already possessed the accomplishments needed and found it was my values in relation to this appraisal that were more hard to nail. As already stated, I did nt desire to label Monica but I did see her as an expert by experience instead than a service user , which is descriptive non of her as a individual but of our relationship ( McLaughlin, 2009 ) . Although engagement in societal work is determined by context ( Kirby et al. , 2003 ; Warren, 2007 ) I saw our relationship as mutual. I found the exchange theoretical account ( Smale et al. , 2000 ; Fook, 2002 ) of appraisal was peculiarly relevant in measuring Monica s ability to further kids, as she would evidently be more of an expert on her abilities. This really made me experience rather dying and powerless. This was, on contemplation, because as a adult male with no kids, I questioned my ability to measure an experient ex-childminding female parent. I took this to supervising and through treatment I understood that my virtuousness moralss ( McBeath and Webb, 2002 ) based on judgement, experience, apprehension, contemplation and temperament ; coupled with rem aining client centred and esteeming Monica as an person ( Dominelli, 2002 ; Middleton, 1997 ) would steer my appraisal. I saw myself as a hermeneutic worker moving in a brooding interpretive procedure between myself and Monica ( Gadamer, 1981 ) . Direct Work I had telephoned Monica and arranged to run into at her place. As the bulk of my visits would be two manner conversations between me and Monica I saw them as interviews with a specific and predetermined intent ( Barker, 2003, p. 227 ) . Eyess of a kid When set abouting Monica s appraisal, I tried to see everything non merely from the eyes of a professional but besides that of a kid. I understood that kids in the attention system would hold diverse demands and backgrounds ( Schofield et al. , 2000 ) with perchance a complex history of moves ( Ward et al. , 2006 ) . However I besides knew that attention can be a turning point and chance to raise kids, enabling them to carry through their possible ( Rutter, 1999 ; Schofield, 2001 ; Schofield and Beek, 2005 ) . Young people have commented that it is a surrogate carer s personality that makes the difference ( DfES, 2007b ) . Therefore by believing like a kid, I wanted to experience confident that by urging Monica to the fostering panel I could see she would be of great comfort and benefit to vulnerable immature people. Upon reaching at Monica s I was greeted by two aggressive Canis familiariss leaping and barking at the door. A tall compact adult male, who I later learnt was her boy, appeared from the garage and asked what I wanted. When inquiring for Monica he replied who wants to cognize . This ill will was shortly eased when I explained who I was, upon which he opened the door, called for Monica, and left me with both Canis familiariss leaping up at me. I felt that a kid come ining Monica s place was likely to be sing a scope of emotions, including anxiousness and from the eyes of a kid this would be chilling. Despite non the best of starts, I was determined non to do a judgement at a superficial degree ( Lloyd and Taylor, 1995 ) and to maintain an unfastened head about Monica s appraisal. Constructing a resonance Aware of the attention and control duality I wanted Monica to experience relaxed with me. I hence invested clip in acquiring to cognize approximately her as a individual before explicating the appraisal procedure. Although echt resonance can be questionable ( Feltham and Dryden, 1993 ) I felt my involvement in Monica was non-tokenistic, as I admired and respected her for desiring the ambitious function of furthering ( Kant, 1964 ) . I believe this was transmitted to her an enabled her to swear me. Monica talked about her household including the separation from her hubby. She besides spoke about caring for her ill female parent that caused her serious back jobs. Monica explained that she had a trim room and could nt believe of any better usage so for kids in demand of a loving place. Interestingly she went on to add well they might non desire to come here, I m a huffy lady and they might inquire: how would I suit into her universe . I found this look strange but following a gut feeling decided non to research at this point. I did this foremost because I did nt desire to look autocratic but secondly I felt my appraisal would subsequently supply beginnings of information that my intuition would be tested against ( Munro, 1996 ) . I explained the fostering appraisal procedure to Monica including the competences ( NFCA, 1999a ) and criterions ( CWDC, 2007 ) . I used a mixture of interpretive, descriptive and ground giving accounts ( Brown and Atkins, 1997 ) to guarantee Monica was clear of our hereafter work together. I commented you might be believing how a immature adult male without kids of his ain can can measure me in looking after kids . This elicited laugher from both Monica and me. As Kadushin and Kadushin ( 1997 ) explain laughter is an equaliser. It deflates ostentation. Workers capacity to express joy at themselves without embarrassment or shame communicates genuineness in the relationship ( pg. 225 ) . I besides believe it served a societal intent ( Foot, 1997 ) to switch power to Monica and do my following statement easier to present. I explained that in the fosterage appraisal it was expected that prospective campaigners were as unfastened and honest about their past experiences. I explained ab out confidentiality and that whilst non everything would be included in the fostering panel study, I could nt vouch absolute confidentiality ( Evans and Harris, 2004 ; Millstein, 2000 ; Swain, 2006 ) . I explained I would ever inform her if I needed to unwrap information and that personal information with no relevancy to her fostering ability would stay confidential. I believe this account built the needed trust ( Collingridge et al. , 2001 ) necessity for our relationship to advancement ( Leever et al. , 2002 ) . General Task Due to being my first visit, no specific undertakings had been set to discourse. Therefore reflexively I thought about the group facilitators earlier remarks about Monica dropping dead as I had noticed her walking assistance. I wanted to reflexivity dispute how I made sense of Monica s fittingness ( White, 2001 ) by making more cognition about this ( DCruz et al. , 2007 ) and maintaining the power balanced towards her. We hence completed a needed medical questionnaire. Monica stated, this is the spot I was worried about . Homing in on this anxiousness and apprehension that she may experience criticised ( Lishman, 1994 ) , I used reassurance to expose regard ( Clark, 2000 ) . I explained that I was non seeking to categorize her as either eligible or ineligible ( Fook, 2002 ) but a medical was expected of all carers. Monica explained that she was diabetic and was commanding this without her medicine and GP s cognition. I explored this with Monica and the possible impact for a vulnera ble kid, saying I would necessitate to discourse with my supervisor. Whilst traveling through the medical questionnaire Monica did nt advert her mobility job and therefore I probed about this. This achieved its coveted consequence ( Egan, 2002 ) as I learnt that Monica was registered handicapped and had nt been able to work for two old ages. Monica exclaimed that s it now is nt it . I truly valued Monica and thanked her for being honest with me. I stated that I was really more concerned about the diabetes so her disablement. My ain values were that every bit long as a kid was safe, so any individual regardless of disablement should be able to further. I set Monica the undertaking of building her chronology to discourse in our following visit and left her place. Supervision Supervision is non merely to help practician s development ( Hawkins and Shohet, 2000 ) but besides the demands of service users ( Pritchard, 1995 ) . I raised my concerns environing Monica s diabetes. I besides raised concerns environing the general province of Monica s place which was highly run down, covered in Canis familiaris hairs and had peculiarly hapless air quality. Using the hierarchy of attentivenesss ( Maslow, 1954 ) I saw how of import the house would be in run intoing the kid s basic demands and therefore its possible impact on a kid making self realization. Hazard has assumed increasing importance in societal workers day-to-day activities ( Webb, 2006 ) and I found my supervisor and senior practician urging we close the appraisal based on hazard. However I viewed the state of affairs from a preventive hazard position ( Corby, 1996 ) and felt that with work and support Monica could still further. I put my instance to the squad director from a Disability Discrimination Act ( 1995 ) and Equality Act ( 2006 ) position, saying that there is a dominant political orientation of disablement where services tended to concentrate on incapacity ( Prime Minister s Strategy Unit, 2005 ; Thompson, 2001 ) . However I saw possible in Monica due to raising her boy independently and her childminding experience. I was granted to go on with my appraisal if Monica could turn to her wellness and family issues. Dalrymple and Burke ( 2006 ) believe that critical argument about personal, professional and organisational values is indispensable in covering with ethical quandary. Although co-workers will hold different point of views ( Watson, 2006 ) , I felt my co-workers were moving habitually seeing Monica s appraisal as impracticable. However I saw my function as besides moral worker ( Hyden, 1996 ) and felt, with the attention vs. control and anti-oppressive pattern in my head, that Monica deserve d the chance to do the necessary sensible accommodations. Discussion around issues On the 2nd visit I discussed the issues environing Monica s diabetes and she agreed to see the GP and get down to command this once more. Her recognition that she was just being obstinate and thought she knew best I believe showed that my actions were with her best involvements in head. I besides raised the topic of the cleanliness of her place. Monica did nt experience at that place was an issue as she and her boy had lived at that place with no concerns. At first I questioned my values and whether I was enforcing them upon her. I reflexively began believing about the Human Rights Act ( 1998 ) Article 8 Right to Respect for Family and Private Life . However I besides thought about how I felt when I had left after the first visit and once more took my point of view from a kid who would potentially be less healthy than me. Under Article 27 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child ( 1990 ) children have the right to a criterion of populating adequate to their physical, mental, religious, moral and societal development . I explained to Monica that I was non seeking to enforce my values and believes upon how she lived and utilizing motivational interviewing ( Miller and Rollnick, 2002 ) asked her to compare her house with her friends places. I had used this method in my first arrangement and believed its usage in placing disagreements was movable. My usage of this method obtained its acquired affect as Monica stated that she knew her house could be a batch cleaner but because of her disablement she could nt keep it. Researching this with job resolution ( Howe, 2007 ) identified the demand of her boy to assist keep the place, but Monica stated she did nt desire to trouble him. I was holding trouble understanding how Monica s boy fitted with her fosterage. From a systems theory position ( Goldstein, 1973 ; Specht and Vickery, 1977 ) I saw this as of import to Monica s appraisal as he was her chief support and therefore his behavior would impact upon both her and kids placed with her. When believing abou t the appraisal of surrogate carers we should be turn toing whether or non the household system is closed or open ( Shaw, 1989 ) . An unfastened household system is one that is accepting of alteration and more likely to offer successful arrangements. Monica explained her boy was apathetic but supportive of her fosterage. I explained that I would necessitate to interview him individually to turn to this issue at a ulterior point in the appraisal. Chronology I had asked Monica to finish her chronology which provides a history of important events in her life ( Parker and Bradely, 2007 ) . This was to measure one of the competences looking at how our ain experiences can impact us ( NFCA, 1999a ) . Monica discussed her life events but nil from her childhood. I asked her about her childhood and she said it was nt of import. I used disputing to help farther ego contemplation and apprehension ( Millar et al. , 1992 ) . Monica asked me about my remarks in our first meeting about being unfastened and honest and whether I needed to cognize everything. I stated I merely needed to cognize things that would impact on her ability to further. Monica began shouting and started to explicate to me that she had been sexually abused in childhood by her uncle. The information elicited took me by complete surprise and made me dying. I sat and listened to understand, sympathize and measure what Monica had disclosed ( Smith, 1997 ) . Reding techniques can be used across many societal work state of affairss ( Seden, 2005 ) and I felt I demonstrated the core/basic guidance accomplishments ( Rogers, 1951 ; 1961 ) required of societal workers ( Thompson, 2002 ) . However with something so entrenched and deep I felt I was nt in the place to research this. Monica stated she wanted to go on and I hence asked Monica her it s impact on her current life. She stated she still had the occasional black twenty-four hours where she could nt acquire out of bed. Care Matters ( DfES, 2007 ) states that we need carers who can stand in the kid s places ( p.46 ) to assist them modulate their feelings. Monica positively identified that she could symp athize with a sexually abused kid but so worryingly said that by speaking to a kid about their issues would assist barricade out her ain cheerless feelings. Anxiety can enrich the individuality of societal work pattern ( Miehls and Moffatt, 2000 ) . On speedy contemplation this anxiousness I felt enhanced the apprehension between me and Monica ( Ruch, 2002 ) and empowered her to state me that she still had her ain issues to turn to. Monica acknowledged that she had nt thought about the maltreatment for 40 old ages believing her disablement caused her depression. I talked with Monica whilst waiting for her friend to get to guarantee she was safe before I left and stated I would shortly be in touch. Endings After the visit I compiled my notes utilizing a funnel attack to polish my information ( Parker and Penhale, 1998 ) into a study for senior staff. I used theory to offer answerability to all involved, including Monica, in my determination to shut her appraisal ( Payne, 2005 ) . This was based on standard 6.1 of the NMS ( DoH, 2002 ) in doing available carers who provide a safe, healthy and nurturing environment ( p.11 ) . My co-workers supported my determination and said to direct Monica a shutting missive which I found insensitive and unacceptable. I wanted a more moral face to confront closing with Monica instead than a procedural closing ( Lloyd, 2006 ) as Monica had disclosed something highly personal to me and I respected her for this. Endings are planned from the beginning ( Kadushin and Kadushin, 1997 ) . The natural stoping would hold been showing Monica s appraisal to the fostering panel. Alternatively our stoping was on different footings in which I provided Monica with a scope of local bureaus that could offer aid or reding to turn to her ain issues. Brooding Evaluation As stated at the beginning of this study, I decided to take this unsuccessful appraisal to analyze instead than my ulterior successful appraisal. This may look strange to the reader as the latter carers are now approved and furthering. However although I could compose in equal length about the more successful appraisal, it was Monica s that taught me more about societal work and about myself. I felt Monica s appraisal demonstrated the acquisition and deployment of my cognition, accomplishments and values over the past two old ages. The wide scope of literature presented in this study pulls on old and new resources, showing the demand to systematically update my cognition in an of all time altering profession. Without this cognition I would neer hold been able to work with Monica. I believe my appraisal, communicating and interpersonal accomplishments demonstrated my competency ( OHagan, 1996 ) . This ensured a natural, about unconscious, usage of the ASPIRE theoretical account ( Sutton, 1999 ) throughout and intend I could accommodate to the state of affairs and react eclectically to Monica s state of affairs due to its complexness ( Cheetham et al. , 1992 ) . Integrity ( BASW, 2002 ) has been the most important value throughout my preparation. I believe it incorporates all values such as Biestek s ( 1961 ) rules. My unity ensured that I fought for the continuance of Moni ca s appraisal at one point ; working anti-oppressively, non-discriminately and contending against societal unfairnesss ( BASW, 2002 ) . However despite my strengths, I appreciate that ego cognition is cardinal to going a brooding practician ( Dominelli, 2002 ) ; necessitating an openness and ability to be self critical ( Trevithick, 2005 ) . With Monica s appraisal I was reminded of how pattern is nt straightforward and can invariably alter ( Parker and Bradley, 2007 ) . I went into this appraisal experiencing that everything would be distinct because Monica had been seen by another societal worker and therefore she must hold been a certainty for furthering. However my complacence and trust on other workers opinions did nt fix me for the information I was subsequently to have. Uncertainty is an inevitable portion of human interaction and determination devising ( Roy at al. , 2002 ) and is something I need to appreciate more and continually turn to within myself. I feel another country that I could hold improved upon was concentrating more on Monica s strengths as she demonstrated an interior resource in reacting to t he day-to-day challenges in her life ( Kisthardt, 1992 ) . I feel that although my determination would non hold changed, in future pattern I need to maintain a steadfast clasp on service user strengths to appreciate that there is room in appraisal to concentrate on the cognitive accomplishments, get bying mechanisms, interpersonal accomplishments and societal supports that can be built on as strengths ( Pierson ( 2002 ) . Although the appraisal had nt gone every bit planned for Monica, I still believe it had some positive impact upon her. Monica s childhood had been traumatic and I viewed this afterwards utilizing the Johari window ( Luft and Ingram, 1955 ) in figure 2 below. At first I had wondered whether Monica s maltreatment was merely an facet of her concealed ego. However what struck me afterwards was that Monica stated I have nt thought about that in over 40 old ages . I had nt attached any significance upon this statement, likely due to the emotiveness of the state of affairs. However upon contemplation I feel that Monica s childhood maltreatment was portion of her unconscious ego that had been repressed as a defense mechanism mechanism ( Freud, 1949 ) . Known Self Things we know about Ourselves and others know about us Hidden Self Things we know about ourselves that others do non cognize Blind Self Thingss others know about us that we do non cognize Unconscious Self Thingss neither we nor others know about us Figure 2: Johari Window ( Adapted from Luft and Ingham, 1955 ) Initially I felt that it may hold been incorrect for me to hold elicited such a strong emotion from Monica. However about 2 months subsequently I received a missive from her thanking me for my support. She was having guidance and although she acknowledged she had a long manner to travel commented that she had seen an betterment in her mobility. I am glad I neer pushed at what Monica meant when she commented I m a huffy lady as I believe my non-judgmental attitude and credence ( Biestek, 1961 ) ensured Monica discovered for herself what she meant by this statement. My determination to shut Monica s appraisal highlighted to me, as was my concern in my planning, that subjugation and power are built-in facets of the day-to-day lives of professionals ( Hugman, 1991 ) . In Monica s instance, although I believe I was non-oppressive working with her, I still felt I processed a certain sum of power. OSullivan states that effective determinations achieve the determination shaper s end ( 2000, p.85 ) . My end was to measure Monica s overall suitableness to further kids for the local authorization. I highlighted to the reader earlier that I held two statements in my head to utilize throughout Monica s appraisal. Although non the make up ones minding factor in my determination, they helped me to see that although I valued Monica and the strengths she possessed, her ain issues needed turn toing before going the cardinal figure to many vulnerable kids. One article I have ever found influential is Howe s Modernity, Postmodernity and Social Work ( 1994 ) . Howe sees societal work as dwelling of the beautiful ( aesthetics ) the good ( moralss ) and the true ( scientific discipline ) ( p.518 ) . The beautiful is when we care which I believe my actions for Monica demonstrated. The true is where change requires us to convey a matter-of-fact and scientific mentality on issues. I believe I used accumulated factual, pattern and self knowledge to assist Monica s state of affairs. Finally the good is when control is employed if behavior has a possible impact upon the community s overall good being. Control was, and still is, something I am uncomfortable with and believe this will ever be the instance. However I see in my pattern with Monica that some component of it was required, otherwise my pattern would hold convened against the rights of so many vulnerable kids. Like many others, the ground I chose societal work was for the chance to do a difference ( Audit Commission, 2002 ) . Milner and OByrne ( 2002 ) believe there is no individual right manner to analyze human state of affairss but we need to happen the terminal merchandise of a narrative that is helpful to all concerned. With Monica s appraisal I believe I achieved this by doing the difference non merely to her but besides to kids who I will neer even meet. It is with this satisfaction that I believe my work incorporates the moralss ( BASW, 2002 ) and pattern criterions ( GSCC, 2002 ) required of me post making. 5708- 296= 5412